Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield
and Desert Storm
(Continued)

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  FRANCE

THE FRENCH AS SALMAN LEAFLET

During operation Desert Storm the Coalition was the lone authorized producer of PSYOP leaflets. It is important in war that one authority produces all propaganda text so that the enemy does not get mixed messages and make assumptions not grounded in fact.

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Foreign Legion Daguet

The French sent their Daguet Division to join the Coalition. Early in the defensive stage of Operation Desert Shield, the French caused some confusion by claiming to be under the command of the Saudi government, rather than the Coalition command. They did not want to be commanded by an American general. I believe that General Schwarzkopf quickly solved that problem in his inimitable way. He assigned them the protection of the far western flank of the battle, about as far from American forces as he could get them. Of course, he assigned the 82nd Airborne Division to the same area to act as a liaison and help the French with logistics and any other problems that might keep them from meshing smoothly with the Coalition.

On 24 February, the French 6th Light Division, combined with the 2nd Brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division, pushed 94 miles into Iraq towards the small junction town of As Salman. They met and destroyed the 10,000-man Iraqi 45th Infantry Division, and captured the Iraqi airfield. Nothing was ever mentioned about a French PSYOP leaflet.

Then, in the fall 1991 issue of the French postcard magazine Cartes Postales et Collection, a French As Salman leaflet was illustrated. This came as quite a surprise to everyone. There were no PSYOP assets available in As Salman. The magazine said that the leaflets were dropped on and around As Salman 2-3 days before the envelopment of the town and airfield.

We had believed that the city had not been leafleted by the Coalition. An officer of the 82nd Airborne told me that there were only about a dozen residents left in town when he got there and the only PSYOP he knew about was loudspeakers on helicopters. He said:

At one point we used choppers on helicopters provided by the 82nd Airborne Division. The XVIII Airborne Corps had a few native speakers from their Military Intelligence Brigade, and the Saudis provided some of their people to fly over Iraqi forward positions to broadcast to them. These choppers never went to deep into enemy territory because we were not sure of how Iraqi anti-aircraft would react. The Iraqis never fired a single shot during the entire operation. By the way, the Saudis always believed that the Iraqis were prime targets for PSYOP. The Saudis used to talk to the Iraqis along the border and invite them over for tea.

The loudspeaker message was along the lines of, "Get out of town, the Coalition is about to attack," which preceded the assault by about 30 minutes.

An other American Major said that he did not see a single PSYOP leaflet in As Salman. Of course, if the leaflets were distributed by hand, there would not be any on the streets. The French had a PSYOP team from the 8th Battalion attached so if they wanted a leaflet it could have been produced and forwarded by the Coalition. The Coalition had dropped some standard leaflets in the general area around the French position. We know that C29 depicting a French flag was dropped, as was surrender leaflet C21.

An American Army officer from the XVIII Airborne Corps told me:

Leaflet C29 was especially produced by U.S. forces for use in the Daguet’s Zone. You will note the Union Jack with the U.S. and French flags. Surrender Leaflet C21 was dropped on and close to As Salman.

The Major admitted that:

There may have been leaflet drops on the Iraqi positions in the desert outside of town. We were not allowed to wander around the battlefield; the French were pretty strict about that.

So, where did this mysterious leaflet originate? Lucien Most, a general of the Daquet Division had this to say about the project:

Unlike the Americans we have no unit that specializes in psychological operations. Our late 5th Bureau was in charge of PSYOP but was closed after the Algerian War and never reopened.

We printed a leaflet that was supposed to be airdropped over As Salman but was in fact simply distributed by hand to the civilians and nomads in the area.

When we learnt about the mission of the Daguet Division; the taking of As Salman village, we thought it useful to prepare the population. This leaflet was therefore designed and written by the headquarters of the Daguet Division with the help of their own interpreters. I don’t know by whom it was recommended and promoted, but it might be General Lesquer who was General Janvier’s assistant. It urged the population to gather. The original text was forwarded to Riyadh Headquarters for agreement.  I think to General Roquejeoffre. One master sheet was produced and then the leaflets were copied in a high-capacity Xerox machine that the Saudis had lent us. I personally printed about 1000 on my Xerox machine, but more could have been printed on other machines. There are no original leaflets. All of these leaflets are photocopies.

After printing they were sent to the Daguet's forward base at Rhafa. They were then forwarded to As Salman. There were few people left in the village so only a fraction of the leaflets were actually used for psychological action.

So, it seems that the French simply decided to ignore the Coalition's wishes and print their own leaflet. It was either airdropped or hand-delivered, depending on whom you want to believe. It apparently exists in two variations. The first, probably the original, has crude U. S. and French flags at the top and was printed on a clear yellow paper. The second type is more professional and might have been "cleaned up" by the Saudis back at headquarters. It has no flags at the top. It may be that one was handed out and one was air-dropped. There is no definite data on dissemination. Richard Johnson called these F13 and F14, but I don’t see them as failed leaflet. I will call them FR1 and FR2.

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FR1

F: Map of As Salman with arrow pointing to an open area. B&W. 145x210mm.

Peace be upon you. We are your friends. Read the instructions on the back of this leaflet. Join quietly at the gathering place that is designated by the arrow. We will come to the assembly place and we will protect you. Welcome.

B: U.S. and French flag at top. 15 lines of Arabic text below.

France.

We are French soldiers. France is your friend. We bring you peace and tranquility. We invite the civilian and religious authorities to meet with us at the place drawn on the map so that we can arrange their reception. Take your families and meet at the gathering place with your identity cards. We will separate the women from the men. If you have weapons, leave them in front of your door. We have doctors, medicine, food and supplies. We will treat you with respect. Once you have gathered, we will enter the city and protect and respect your belongings. You will return to your city and homes after the completion of the inspection.

You will live in peace and security under our protection.

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FR2

F: Map of As Salman with arrow pointing to an open area. B&W. 145x210mm.
"Peace be upon you. We are your friends..." Same as FR1.

B: No flags at top. 15 lines of Arabic text below. "We are French soldiers..." same as FR1.

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BRITISH

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British Royal Scouts Dragoon Guard, 7th Armored Division
and the Force Maintenance Area Group unit patches

Nigel Pearce says in The Shield and the Sabre - The Desert Rats in the Gulf 1990-1991, HMSO, London, 1992:

The British term for the Gulf War was Operation Granby. The Marquis of Granby was an eminent and courageous soldier who became the Army's Commander-in-Chief in 1766. He once had his hat and wig shot off during a cavalry charge which led to the British expression "to go baldheaded at something."

An unnamed author says in an untitled British Joint Services Command and Staff College abstract:

The United Kingdom’s contribution to the coalition PSYOP effort in the Gulf consisted of only 3 officers, whose energies were largely focused on radio in the form of the “Voice of the Gulf.”  It has been assessed that since the Voice of the Gulf gave accurate details of forthcoming coalition air strikes, there was an overriding imperative for the average Iraqi soldier to listen. Despite the strenuous efforts on the part of the Iraqi leadership to apply brutal censorship measures, approximately 50,500 (58%) of all Iraqi prisoners reported hearing the station, with the overwhelming majority (88%) acting upon the instructions it broadcast. The success of U.S. led PSYOP in the Gulf provided considerable impetus to review and develop the UK PSYOP capability.

I seem to recall that the British forces also caused a small commotion with some internal print products that they distributed to their own people to boost morale. I am sorry now that I did not write myself a memorandum for record (MFR) at the time, but I did not expect to be writing this article 15 years later. As I recall, they did not ignore the Coalition recommendations and prepare a propaganda leaflet like the French did. Instead, they printed some calendars, menus, and other items that depicted semi-naked women and the kind if pin-ups that the troops adore but the Arabs hated. I don’t think it ever became a real problem, but I vaguely remember some members of the 4th PSYOP Group telling me that the British were spoken to. If any Gulf War PSYOP veterans recall more about this “stumble” in the smooth advance of Coalition cohesiveness, I would like to hear about it.

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British Mine Leaflet (Arabic)

One of the British printed items is a mine awareness leaflet that has been folded to make four pages. This document was printed by the United Kingdom Explosive Ordnance Disposal Cell, Kuwait City. The aide memoire illustrates and explains Submunitions (Rockeye, Blu 63, Gator, Blu 97); Anti personnel mines (V69 Valmara, VS50, PMN); and Anti Tank Mines (VS 1.6, VS 2.2, TM 62M).

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British Mine Leaflet (English)

This document was printed in Arabic and also printed in English for Coalition troops.

According to General Sir Peter de la Billiere, commander of all United Kingdom forces in the Middle East, of the 45,000-man British military presence in the Gulf, there was just one individual assigned to psychological operations before the start of the shooting phase of the war. The British reinforced their PSYOP contingent about the latter part of January with a team of 12 men from England. Billiere says in Storm Command, Harper Collins, London, 1992:

On the British side there had been much discussion about whether or not such tactics were ethically desirable...The Americans, however, had waded in with their usual lack of inhibition and had a whole battalion working on it.

On the subject of our British allies, perhaps we should take a moment to mention the number of troops the various English speaking allies deployed during the Gulf War. Great Britain deployed 45,000 troops, Canada sent 2,700 troops, and Australia sent 1,658 troops.

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KUWAIT

 

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Kuwaiti Beret Badge

 

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Kuwait Postcard

The Kuwaitis also ran a very sophisticated PSYOP operation. They had offices in Saudi Arabia and Egypt and were willing to put funds into producing a quality product. Perhaps the best is a full-color picture postcard in the general form of a St. Valentine's Day card that shows a fighter jet, a map of Kuwait and a photograph of the Kuwait water towers. The card was printed in Cairo by the Kuwaiti Information Center. The text is:

TO THE HEROES OF DESERT STORM:

Dear Courageous Soldier:
On August 2nd as everyone knows,
our former brothers became our foes.
They invaded our land at night as we slept,
over our borders by the thousands they crept.
In helicopters and trucks and in tanks they came,
the evil warriors of Saddam Hussein.
But then YOU came and brought hope to us all,
that Kuwait would be free and Saddam would fall.
We'd like to thank you for your courageous stand,
to expel the Iraqis and free our land.
You're in our hearts this Valentine's Day,
and you're in our prayers EVERY day.

Sincerely,

The Kuwaiti People.

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Kuwaiti Propaganda Stamps

They also printed two small full-color propaganda stamps. The first depicts the flag of Kuwait and the words in Arabic and English, "Free Kuwait." The second depicts the emblem of Kuwait and once again the words in Arabic and English, "Free Kuwait." These stamps were circulated all over the Arab world to support the war against Saddam and the independence of Kuwait. I have a number of envelopes bearing the cancelled stamps from a half-dozen Muslim countries.  

The Kuwait Government-in-Exile introduced propaganda into Kuwait through their resistance movement. Some of the techniques were the production of leaflets and posters produced both inside Kuwait or smuggled in on the unpaved Al-Atruf Road from Saudi Arabia. One report states that:

Leaflets were distributed at Al-Baharma Mosque in Al-Daia, urging the staging of a demonstration, the first rows of which consisting of unarmed people, while the subsequent two rows carry arms to be used against opposing troops.

Leaflets also called for resistance against the Iraqis and in particular for shop keepers to stay home and not open their stores on selected days.

The resistance also prepared video tapes inside Kuwait showing Iraqi atrocities.

The resistance passed along a staggering number of rumors, each one carefully investigated by Iraqi security. It is hard to believe but among the more interesting rumors was that a number of foreign Special Forces and suicide squads were alleged to be on their way to Kuwait to fight the Iraqis. Among the Iraqi filed documents we find reports on the expected arrival of the Japanese, Egyptians, British, Syrians, Lebanese, Afghan Mujahideen, U.S. Marines, intelligence agents disguised as shepherds and 100 Iraqi army deserters who went over to the Kuwaitis.

Many Kuwaitis placed pro-Government graffiti on their homes, or flew the (now illegal) Kuwaiti flag and placed pictures of the Kuwait leaders in their windows. The Iraqis were ordered to arrest these resistors, execute them if necessary and burn down their houses if warranted.

In a more deadly mode, the resistance gave poisoned food and water to Iraqi soldiers, enticed them into quiet areas where they could be murdered and on at least one occasion fired a missile at an Iraqi jumbo jet. It is clear that although we never heard much about it, the Iraqis had a major Vietnam-like guerrilla war on their hands.

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GERMANY

The Federal Republic of (West) Germany quietly sent some of its own psychological warfare troops to aid the Coalition in the disseminating of PSYOP leaflets by balloon. The Germans had mastered the technique during decades of balloon propaganda warfare with the German Democratic Republic (DDR) since the end of World War II. The German Federal Constitution frowned on such military aid outside of the Republic, and in fact it was expressly prohibited, but the importance of reversing Iraq's conquest of Kuwait was so vital that the German Government felt a need to get involved. The number of operations the Germans took part in and the number of leaflets distributed is still classified. It has been alleged that to meet the “spirit of the law,” the Germans only sent Army Reservists and no actual Regular Army personnel. They were identified as “technical representatives,” which gave them more cover. The Saudis and the Turks did not know there were German military on site, just “Tech Reps” (wink wink). Some reports state that German leaflets sent by balloon from Al Quysumah airfield in Saudi Arabia in six missions between 30 December 1990 and 8 January 1991 totaled 540,000. As you read the descriptions of some leaflets in this article you will find that I mention them as balloon-dropped.

Various documents give us general information such as the themes for balloon carried leaflets. We know that 54,000 leaflets used the theme of surrender, 90,000 stressed that Saddam was the blame for the war, and there were 186.000 dropped with themes described as “other.” Another confusing 4th PSYOP Group document says that 342,000 leaflets were distributed by balloon, waterborne and man pack operations. We know that 12,000 of “The Wave” leaflets were floated onto the beaches of Kuwait. If we subtract that number we get 300,000, the exact same number as in the first document. I think we can say that the man pack distribution was negligible and almost all of the 300,000 leaflets were ballooned. We have one more fact. Leaflet product 3-I, the one we call V28 with the wartime code name “Surrender - 2 frames” has the mission description, “German S.” Perhaps this is the leaflet from the “surrender” theme. The Germans operated from a site near Al Quysumah Airfield with the aid of the 6th U.S. Army PSYOP Battalion and mostly sent leaflets by balloon into Southern Kuwait. According to a 5th Special Forces Group Reconnaissance Team on the ground, one 12-foot balloon with an aluminum deployment canister that came down near them was packed with leaflets C20 and C26.

Curiously, one PSYOP officer told me that at just about the time of the Iraqi invasion he had refigured all of the formulas in the American Handbook of Leaflet Dissemination by Balloons. This handbook was originally a project of the CIA and was almost entirely based on the Johns Hopkins study (Low, Medium, High Dissemination) that was re-printed by the 7th PSYOP Group and then the 4th PSYOP Group. He said:

The formulas for leaflet calculations given in this book are wrong. A sergeant and I worked out the correct formulas just before the gulf war in 1991, to within around 99.991 percent accuracy of the tables in the book. The calculations for leaflet dissemination have been fully automated first with GW-Basic and now with Excel combined with the FalconView program.

When I asked this expert why the Germans were called in when the United States apparently had the knowledge to do the balloon dissemination is said:

I guess it was a case of all the Allies pitching in. I think the Koreans could have done the job just as well or better. Korea and Taiwan were good at that, both sending millions of leaflets by balloon against their Communist adversaries.

Germany now has a large and active psychological operations force. It was created on 1 October 1959 as a psychological warfare branch to send leaflets into the German Democratic Republic (DDR). By 1 January 1960, the Germans established the first Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company (Lautsprecher und Flugblattkompanie).

According to West German Colonel (Ret.) Albert Hagemann, in 1961 psychological warfare units started a leaflet and newspaper offensive against East Germany, its ruling Socialist Unity Party, and its armed forces. The West Germans decided to rely on leaflets for several reasons. There were few televisions and radios available in the GDR during the 1960s and balloon-launched leaflets promised a fairly high accuracy. Very soon the three L&L Companies, one with each West German Army Corps, began to send eighty tons of leaflets a year eastward, mostly by balloon

At one point the Germans and American 5th Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company in B÷blingen informally traded some personnel to let each side learn what the other was doing. This “good will” would pay off later in Desert Storm.

The members of the unit prepared graphs and tables and wrote the first official training and field manuals. They thought that if needed, they could deliver a payload of leaflets right over Leipzig Railroad Station at 7 AM sharp. They used hydrogen balloons that carried up to 8.8 lbs of leaflets, newspapers, or small booklets. They could launch up to 6,600 lbs or 1 million leaflets to targets in East Germany on a single night. The East German Communists were also counting. For the year 1968 they recorded 812 balloons with 810,000 leaflets and in 1969 they recorded 271 balloons with 249,000 leaflets.

The printed material delivered by the psychological warfare units between August 1961 and August 1964 consisted of 232 different leaflets, newspapers, and, on occasion, books.

On 30 June 1972 all West German propaganda operations ceased in the preparation for the Basic Understanding Treaty of 21 December 1972, in which both German states officially recognized each other.

In 1990 the unit was renamed OpInfo. Although the Germans admit no part in the Persian Gulf War, they do admit to involvement in the postwar humanitarian Operation Provide Comfort and the production of flyers and leaflets to inform fleeing Kurds about NATO relief efforts and the support provided by aid organizations. In 2001, German PSYOP troops joined the Coalition once again and served in Afghanistan.

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POLAND?

Allegedly, Germany was not the only nation to have PSYOP troops involved in Operation Desert Storm. A Coalition-nation officer told to me that there was also a Polish PSYOP Company quietly working for the Coalition. We have no way to verify this statement, but we do know that in 1991 General Franciszek Gagor was the Executive Officer/Deputy Commander of the Polish Military Contingent to Operation Desert Storm and in 1991-1992 the Deputy Sector Commander of the UN Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM).

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THE CIA LEAFLETS

Several leaflets appeared after the end of the war that were not found in the records of the 4th PSYOP Group or any other military files or documents. They all came out of Iraq after the end of the war at a time that the CIA was working with the Kurds in the North and the Shiites in the South and other anti-Saddam forces to overthrow the regime. I have called them the “CIA Leaflets.” To be honest, I have no idea who printed them. All we can say for sure is that they were first reported in Iraq several months after the end of the war, and that all of the leaflets that have mysteriously appeared seem to come from the collection of former intelligence agents. A small group of the leaflets appeared in 1999 and were said to be from the personal collection of a former CIA agent.

What do we know about the actions of the CIA during Desert Storm?

The Central Intelligence Agency is mentioned in the United States Army Special Operation Command Booklet: Psychological Operations during Desert Shield/Storm - A Post-operational Analysis:

At his direction (Office of the Director of the Joint Staff) the campaigns and their component actions were divided into two sub-plans; a "white" (overt) sub-plan to be executed by the Department of Defense, and a "black" (covert) sub-plan passed to the CIA as a "recommendation."

In fact, few if any of the proposed actions were truly covert. Most of the "non-white" actions involved clandestine delivery of overt US messages through channels not accessible by the United States Commander in Chief, Central Command, e.g., the Kuwaiti resistance. The planning cell assumed the CIA had such access and therefore suggested the agency as an appropriate action agent. The distinction was apparently lost during the review process.

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CIA Leaflet Exhibit – Langley HQ

In 1993, I was in the CIA Headquarters in Langley, Virginia. It was lunchtime so we went downstairs to eat. There is a small museum just outside their cafeteria. Not really a museum as much as a series of glass cases holding CIA souvenirs from many wars. I looked through some of the exhibits of exotic weapons, hollow coins, documents and cameras, and found a display of leaflets which were identified as “CIA-Produced Pamphlets.” The description was:

These CIA-produced leaflets were used during the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991). Copies of the leaflets were air-dropped over a selected area before an Allied bombing run. The leaflets gave the civilian people time to evacuate and encouraged the military units to surrender.

I immediately recognized the leaflets as very similar to the 4th Group leaflets and assumed that the CIA was taking credit for an Army PSYOP campaign. When I looked closer, however, I realized that each of the leaflets on display were on a thin tissue-like paper. They were just a bit different from the Army leaflets. These were the standard “white” leaflets mentioned earlier in this article and numbered 27, 35, 36; 37, and 38. Notice that the leaflets we mention below which seem to be more “black” are not mentioned. The most important part of this exhibit is the CIA’s admission that they produced leaflets. As expected, they are willing to admit producing the leaflets that are known, but they avoid mentioning the clandestine “black” leaflets.

The CIA mentions some of their Desert Storm actions on their website. They say in part:

One of the Central Intelligence Agency's primary functions is to provide intelligence support to US military forces. Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm (1990-91) were no exception. From the moment Iraq invaded Kuwait, CIA officers in Washington and around the world worked to provide intelligence support for the soldiers, sailors, airmen, and Marines deployed to the Gulf.

The CIA formed round-the-clock task forces in its operations and intelligence directorates the day of the invasion. The Directorate of Operations augmented appropriate CIA stations overseas to handle anticipated increases in collection, reporting, and liaison requirements. The Directorate of Intelligence increased the number of ``all-source'' and imagery analysts dedicated to the effort, while maintaining its core of experienced Iraqi analysts:

The CIA assigned several military analysts to the Pentagon's JIC. The Iraqi experts at CIA Headquarters and the CIA military analysts at the Pentagon maintained daily contact with their counterparts at the Department of Defense. Soon after CENTCOM established its headquarters in Saudi Arabia, CIA deployed JILE (Joint Intelligence Liaison Element) teams to CENTCOM headquarters. The JILE teams were CIA's primary conduit for providing intelligence information to the deployed US forces

If these were CIA leaflets, how were they made? They might have used a classified military operation as a cover. Suppose that they were produced as a part of Joint Task Force Proven Force, whose goal was the destabilization of the Saddam regime. A Pentagon report to Congress states that JTF Proven Force was primarily an Air Force effort based in Turkey, under the operational control of EUCOM, but under the Tactical control of CENTCOM.  JTFPF controlled over 6000 men and a numerous aircraft based in Turkey. JTFPF contained an ad-hoc 21-person detachment that designed and prepared propaganda leaflets. Might they have been involved? I recall at the time that they were considered highly classified and at the start of the war we were encouraged not to even mention the name “Proven Force.”  Perhaps we will never know. In The Commandos - The Inside Story of America's Secret Soldiers, Douglas C. Waller adds:

The Pentagon would handle the overt operations, such as making sure Iraqi soldiers knew that a red cross meant a red crescent, and the covert operations would be left to the CIA, which had already put together a small PSYOP group...But the CIA's PSYOP capability was pitifully weak compared to the 4th PSYOP Group.

The NY Times reported on 19 January 1991 that President Bush had signed three "findings." that allowed the CIA to join in the psychological operations. The first authorized the CIA to take part in propaganda and deception campaigns. The second gave permission for the CIA to work with Army Special Operations forces to support guerrilla fighters in Kuwait. The third empowered the CIA to work to destabilize Saddam Hussein's government. It was also reported that the CIA had taken over Kuwait's intelligence apparatus. A final quote from the article is, “The Pentagon units are coordinating efforts with psychological warfare experts from the CIA.”

Toward the end of Operation Desert Storm both the Kurds and Shiites rose up against Saddam Hussein. It was rumored that the United States encouraged the Kurds to rise up against Saddam and promised support for their rebellion. That always seemed strange to me because as you can see from this article, none of the 29-million leaflets dropped on the Iraqis called for a revolt against Saddam. In fact, some trial leaflets that were prepared that did call for such actions were not approved for dissemination. The plan was to defeat the Iraqi Army in the field and drive it from Kuwait, not to overthrow the government. So, where did the Kurds (and the Shiites to the South) get the idea that the U.S. Government wanted a rebellion? According to Philip M. Taylor in Munitions of the Mind: A history of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day, Manchester University Press, UK, 2003:

The blame falls on the Central Intelligence Agency. He states that there was an uneasy relationship between white (overt) military PSYOP and black (covert) CIA PSYOP:

The latter consisted of black radio transmitters posing as Iraqi stations manned by internal enemies of Saddam Hussein. Because none could supposedly detect the genuine source of messages broadcast by these stations, they were able to deviate from the official coalition line that desert Storm was about the liberation of Kuwait and not about the overthrow of Saddam Hussein …Black radio stations therefore carried messages encouraging an internal revolt within Iraq , but when signs of success in doing this appeared towards the end of the war in the form of Kurdish and Shia uprisings, no actual military support was forthcoming from the West. This was another classic example of the dangers of policy and propaganda getting out of step.

The Kurds did revolt in March 1991, occupied the towns of Ranya, Sulemaniye, Arbil, Dahuk, Aqra, and Kirkuk and put the province of Mosul under siege. Saddam Hussein counter-attacked with a vengeance and his revamped Republic Guard drove the Kurds into the mountains. It was a slaughter, apparently caused by the CIA disinformation, and led directly to Operation Provide Comfort.

I have given all the leaflets CIA Codes. I will list them in the order that they appeared along with the Johnson number. There is no information about the production or dissemination of any of these leaflets.

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Johnson 2015 offering

25 years after the end of the Operation Desert Storm Richard Johnson offered four of the CIA banknote leaflets for a price of $85. He added a photograph to the offer that indicates that he had saved at least a dozen of each of the banknote leaflets.

CIA1

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F: Stealth aircraft climbs away from exploding Iraqi soldier. B&W.

B: In red: U.S. Marine Corps seal "United States Naval Infantry," and text.
" Follow these procedures to cease resistance. Pull your ammunition magazine from your weapon. Put your weapon on your left shoulder and aim the barrel at the ground. Raise your hands over your head and walk slowly. Wave with a white cloth or raise this leaflet to show you are willing to surrender. All Allied soldiers know this initiative shows that you are willing to surrender."

The normal leaflet is in B&W. None of us could figure out why a red-back leaflet suddenly appeared. Johnson called this leaflet V57.

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CIA2

F: 25-dinar Iraqi banknote, white border. Color. Tissue paper. 6" x 3"

B: Saddam sits atop a pile of skulls. B&W.
"I can live for 20 years."

Johnson calls this F02.

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His glorious Regime…

I thought it might be interesting to point out that a good idea never becomes old. In WWII the American Office of Strategic Services in Berne, Switzerland, produced clandestine “black” leaflets to be sent into Germany to sap their morale. Note that number 163 depicts Hitler sitting on a pile of skulls. The OSS became the CIA and almost 50 years later we see Saddam sitting on a similar pile of skulls on a CIA leaflet. The text on the old WWII leaflet is:

His glorious regime is enthroned on this

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CIA3 

F: 25-dinar Iraqi banknote white border. Color. Tissue paper. As CIA2

B: Saddam stands behind eight starving children. B&W.
"We can live for 20 years. But our stores are empty and yours are full."

Johnson calls this F02.

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 CIA4 

F: 25-dinar Iraqi banknote, white border. Color. Tissue paper. As CIA2.

B: Saddam lights a cigar with map of Iraq, drinks alcohol. B&W. Unknown text.

This item was first reported in Newsweek, 8 June 1992. Johnson calls this F03.

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CIA5 

F: 25-dinar Iraqi banknote white border. Color. Tissue paper. As CIA2.

B: Grocer in empty store tears off banknotes from roll.
"At least it has some worth now."  

The text is a sarcastic reference. The shelves are empty, but the bank notes still have some value as wrapping paper. This item was also reported in Newsweek, 8 June 1992. Johnson calls it F04.

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CIA6

F: 25-dinar Iraqi banknote white border. Color. Tissue paper. As CIA2.

B: Saddam throws Iraq into the fire of war.
Newspaper headline: "The Green March – The War – The Butcher of Baghdad."

Richard Johnson does not list this leaflet in his book.

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CIA7

F: 25-dinar Iraqi banknote white border. Color. Tissue paper. As CIA2.

B: Two Iraqi soldiers sit in the desert on rug with drinks in hand.
"Have you heard what the Father of Radi has agreed to?"

Richard Johnson does not list this leaflet in his book. We have no idea what this text refers to. It could be a nickname for Saddam or could be a reference from the Koran. We do know from leaflet C80 that "Father of Khalid" refers to a fool, so perhaps this is also a derogatory comment.

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 CIA8

F: The flag of Kuwait is at the left.
"The Free Kuwait."
The three Kuwait water towers are at the right.
"Long Live Kuwait. 

B: The flag of Kuwait at the left.
"Greatness for Kuwait."
The three Kuwait water towers are at the right.
" Long Live Kuwait.'

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 CIA9

F: All text. Color

"The world is appealing to Saddam to cooperate because it doesn't want to fight Iraq. The international community sent food to the Iraqi people but the assistance is only finding its way to Saddam and his family. He doesn't understand the meaning of peace and the only language he understands is violence, as he now threatens again to use violence against you and your loved ones by ignoring international efforts to make peace.

B: All text.

"You have suffered so much for his foolishness. You tried to repair the damage, but once again he is dragging the country to the brink of disaster by his challenges to the international community." 

V02cF.jpg (10448 bytes)  V02c.jpg (11964 bytes)

CIA10

 F: Bomb 78mm. B&W. As E02.
"Warning! This is only the beginning. This could have been a real bomb. We have no desire to harm innocent people, but Saddam is leading you to certain death and destruction. We want you to know the truth! Saddam is the cause. Yes, the Multi-national forces have the ability to strike anywhere, and at any time. Warning!”

B: “The truth...eight years of war with Iran. Half a million needless deaths. The victories - gone. Now, a generation in peril. A world united against Saddam. No bargaining with him. Don't allow him to be the reason for your annihilation. Don't let Saddam lead you to destruction.” 11 lines. 87mm in length.

Once again a very common black and white leaflet with a red back. This leaflet is another item from the personal collection of an ex-CIA agent. Johnson calls it V02c.

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