SGM Herbert A. Friedman (Ret.) and Brigadier General Ioannis Paschalidis
Note: this article was used with the authors permission as a reference source for the book: The Social Construction of Death - Interdisciplinary Perspectives, edited by Leen Van Brussel and Nico Carpentier, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. Images from this article were used by Tim Reardon in his presentation, An Illustrated History of Nicosia Airfield at the Center of Visual Arts & Research sponsored by USAID.
This article is just a bit different that our usual look at the psychological operations of a small war. Normally all the reference material is written by the victorious Colonial power and everything is told from the Government side. In this case, much of the material was forwarded by a Greek military officer who saw the National Organization of Cypriot Struggle (EOKA) as patriots fighting to unite
Cypruswith . The reader might find some of the comments troubling, but it is important to remember that one mans terrorist is another mans patriot. The American Revolution is a case in point. Greece
Brigadier General Ioannis Paschalidis
Brigadier General Ioannis Paschalidis was born in the city of
Thessalonicain 1955, and graduated from the (Evelpidon) in 1977. He served in several Artillery units and commanded an MLRS regiment. He studied in the Greek Military Academy Academyof National Defenseand the , where he also served as a professor and Faculty Director (1996-1999). In 2002, he became Director of the PSYOP Wing in the Schoolof War Studies . Schoolof War Studies
I was contacted by General Paschalidis who thought that something should be written about psychological warfare by the Greeks. I wrote half the article and half is the generals thoughts, so we have shared the authorship. I should also point out that after initial publication; the British side was championed by David Carter of the website www.britain-smallwars.com who sent me reams of documents telling the British side of the
conflict. I have added some of his comments for balance. Cyprus
I feel that I should warn the reader that he is going to find a lot of events told from both the Greek and the British side. This was a 5,000 word article, then a 10,000 word, and now a 15,000 word article. You will hear the Greeks say that the British ran wild and beat and murdered Greeks after a British woman was assassinated. You will hear the British answer that there was some roughness, but it was to be expected, and only three people died. The Greeks will tell you of British Concentration camps, and the British will answer that the camps were rather nice and all the inmates were paid and kept amused. It is clear that we are getting propaganda from both sides, and I warn the reader to understand that everything they read here will be propaganda from one side or the other. Take it all with a grain of salt. And now, to our story:
I would like to hear from Greek or British subjects who have kept some of the
leaflets as souvenirs. We need to show more propaganda items. Please contact us if you have anything stored away in an old scrapbook. Cyprus
The history of the
is filled with myths and legend. From the 15th century B.C. onwards, Achaeans settled in the island and established deep ties with mainland Islandof Cyprus . The Achaeans were one of the terms Homer used for the Greeks in the Iliad and Odyssey. The Homeric Achaeans were part of the Mycenaean civilization that dominated Greece from about 1600 B.C. Those early Greeks built cities on Greece and during their history fought the Assyrians, Persians, Romans and Arabs. Cyprus
The Mediterranean Island of Cyprus was later ruled by the Ottomans for over three hundred years although it was always claimed by
due to its majority Greek population. In 1878, the Ottoman Empire granted control of the Island to Greece in exchange for their support in the Russian-Turkish war. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1914 at the start of WWI. In 1915, Britain Britainoffered to cede Cyprusto in return for their entry into the war against the Central Powers. Greece turned the offer down since it was still recovering from the bloody Balkan Wars of 1912-1913. By 1925, Greece was a British crown colony. Like the British experience in Cyprus , the people rose up on numerous occasions to demand freedom. Ireland
The 1950 Referendum
Greek Cypriots made up an overwhelming majority of 82% of the islands population of just over 500,000 in 1950. A plebiscite sponsored by the
Cypriot Churchthat year resulted in a vote of 95.7 percent of the Greek Cypriots in favor of becoming part of the Nation of . Those that believe the referendum was not valid say that it was conducted entirely amongst the Greek Cypriots of the Orthodox faith. They believe that considerable church pressure was brought to bear on these people and if they did not vote in favor or not vote at all, they would lose their rights to church rituals for marriages, births and deaths. Greece
Archbishop Makarios III
The Greek Orthodox Church led the movement for enosis, or union with
. After the Second World War, Archbishop Makarios secretly invited Cypriot-born retired Greek Army Colonel Georgios Grivas (code name Digenes), to form the Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Aghoniston, (EOKA) or National Organization of Cypriot Struggle, a military arm of the Enosis movement. Digenes (also spelled Dighenis) was a half-Arabic, half-Roman warrior in the Byzantine frontier near the Greece Euphratesduring the ninth and tenth centuries. Digenes was a great hero who defended for his entire life. Byzantium
The British did not know who Digenes was, and it was his sworn enemy, the Cyprus Communist Party (Ethnikos Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos - ELAS) that broadcast the news on "Free Greek Radio," broadcast from behind the "Iron Curtain" that finally told the world the name of the EOKA leader. The British seemed to be always in doubt as to whether Grivas was really on Cyprus, or even if he was alive or dead. He could disappear for months or years at a time and this gave rise to rumors that he was dead, had left the island or was suffering from some debilitating illness. Colonel Byford-Jones adds:
All new men on security had the same teething troubles: some got over them and some did not, but went back home raving that Grivas didnt exist that he was a piece of propaganda invented by Athenian propagandists..
H. D. Purcell describes Makarios in Cyprus, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1969. He points out that in 1952; Makarios had founded PEON (The Pancyprian Youth Organization) which became a recruiting center for EOKA. In autumn of 1954 he organized P.E.K. (Farmers
Union). The P.E.K. was particularly active in procuring arms and explosives in preparation for the struggle. The Greek Orthodox Church was active in preparing for the campaign and those joining EOKA took an oath administered by priests and taken in the name of the Holy trinity. Monasteries and churches were often used to hide weapons and explosives.
The EOKA oath is quoted by Wilfred Byford-Jones in Grivas and the Story of EOKA, Robert Hale Ltd., London, 1959:
I swear not to disclose to anybody, under any circumstances, however hard I may be tortured, and secrets concerning individuals, arms, hideouts, the funds or the activities of the Organization. I swear not to take advantage of the Organizations money, to obey without dispute the orders of my superiors, and finally to dedicate with all my strength and even my life to the success of the holy aims of the Organization.
The EOKA Youth Organization oath is known. It is as follows:
I swear in the name of the Holy Trinity that:
I shall work with all my power for the liberation of
from the British yoke sacrificing for this even my life; Cyprus
I shall perform without objection all the instructions of the organization which may be entrusted to me and I shall not bring any objection, however difficult and dangerous these may be;
I shall not abandon the struggle unless I receive instructions from the leader of the organization and after our aim has been accomplished;
I shall never reveal to anyone any secret of our organization neither the names of my chiefs nor those of the other members of the organization even if I am caught and tortured;
I shall not reveal any of the instructions, which may be given me even to my fellow combatants.
If I disobey my oath, I shall be worthy of every punishment as a traitor and may eternal contempt cover me.
Grivas mentions the difficulty of acquiring weapons in Guerrilla Warfare. He says:
Arms were imported from Greece with great difficulties, in driblets, either through the parcel post or through our couriers. Consequently, I was later forced to use shotguns, a quantity of which I seized from their owners on a single night. I use them to form special detachments called "Shotgun Commando Groups" (known, under their Greek initials, as OKT).
As regard munitions, at the start we were very short but gradually succeeded in supplying our own needs. Certain quantities we were able to salvage from ships which had been sunk off the coasts of Cyprus during the Second World War. Other we manufactured using explosive obtainable in Cyprus itself and sold in its shops.
Colonel Georgios Grivas
Nico Carpentier mentions Grivas and EOKA in the book The Social Construction of Death, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. He says in part:
EOKA officially announced the start of what they called the liberation struggle on 1 April 1955 with a series of bomb attacks. With a small group of between 250 and 300 guerrilleros, EOKAs leader Grivas had no intention to tackle the British head-on, but relied on sabotage and small-scale killings, combined with propaganda and strengthened by the passive resistance of the Greek Cypriot population. The EOKA not only targeted the British, but also Greek Cypriots and the Cypriot police, which consisted to a relatively high degree of Turkish Cypriots In his General Plan for Insurrectionary Action, Grivas strongly emphasized the need to draw the attention on international public opinion, especially among the allies of Greece.
Starting about 1955 Greek Cypriots fought a guerrilla war against British rule to gain independence. There were three main reasons that the political movement turned violent:
Starting about 1955 Greek Cypriots fought a guerrilla war against British rule to gain independence. There were three main reasons that the political movement turned violent:
1. The British stated that
would never be granted independence. Cyprus
2. The British moved their Middle East Headquarters to
in December 1954, making it clear that they intended to stay on the island for the immediate future. The main MI6 station for Middle East was based in Nicosia, and the Middle East High Command in Episcope. Permanent radio-signal monitoring stations were placed on Aghios Nicolaos and Cyprus Mount Troodos, Olympusand Pergamos. British radio stations targeting Arab populations in the Middle East transmitted from . The Arab Near East Radio Station transmit from Polemydia, and its signal reached as far as Cyprus Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Northern Egypt, and parts of Saudi Arabia. A source of British propaganda, this station was a major means of PSYOP against the Arabs. Cypruswas a key island for London and Washington during the Cold War, a military and data collection base for the wider region of Eastern Mediterranean
3. The United Nations refused to consider the question of
The table of organization of EOKA shows that the Grivas directed every aspect of the movement. He says:
The lack of sufficient experienced assistants compelled me to centralize command Had I been eliminated; the whole struggle would have collapsed because no one could have taken my place.
Grivas controlled a number of major sections such as ANE (Young Stalwarts), PENA (Political Committee of the Cypriot Struggle), A Liaison Section, a Propaganda Section, an Information Section, and a Supply Section. He also directed sector commands that oversaw guerilla groups.
British Colonel Byford-Jones attacks Grivas use of propaganda:
Hitler and Grivas believed in propaganda. Both believed that the average person was so slow to comprehend that the propaganda of a campaign had to be confined to a few bare necessities expressed, and constantly repeated; in a few stereotyped formulas The first necessity was to make Greek Cypriots incensed with the British by the spread of slander and untruths.
Bristish soldiers search Cypriot terrorist/patriot suspects
As is always the case, the British considered the armed Cypriots terrorists while the Greeks considered them patriots. EOKA was aware that it could not win a military victory against the British but through carefully planned actions against British military targets and a strong propaganda campaign; it hoped to gain control of the local population, sway world opinion, and wear down the British. Grivas said:
It should not be supposed that by these means we should expect to impose a total defeat on the British forces in
. Our purpose is to win a moral victory through a process of attrition, by harassing, confusing, and, finally, exasperating the enemy forces By demonstrating Cypriot resolve and self-sacrifice, we are prepared to continue until international diplomacy exercises through the United Nations, and the British in particular, are compelled to examine the Cyprus problem . . . Cyprus
Purcell says that Grivas planned a four-stage campaign. The first stage was childrens riots, the spreading of leaflets and bombings and sabotage. Stage two was the killing of collaborators and Greeks who were anti-EOKA. The third stage was the killing of British troops and civilians and Turkish police officers. Stage four was passive resistance.
In regard to the first stage leaflets, Purcell gives a number of examples. For instance, after the attack on a radio station EOKA distributed a leaflet claiming responsibility, signed Digenes and bearing a Byzantine double-headed eagle. When U.S. Vice-Consul William Boteler was killed by accident, Grivas produced a leaflet stating that a mistake was made and it was not always possible to distinguish between Americans and Britons. When an EOKA group in
killed the wife of a British soldier, Grivas issued a leaflet disclaiming responsibility for what took place. Famagusta
The following is a very quick look at the short 5-year war. We will go into it in more depth further into this article.
Digenes and his guerilla fighters in the mountains of Cyprus
EOKA military action against the British began in April of 1954. By November of 1955, a State of
was declared by the British. The British flooded the island with troops and by 1956 had over 17,000 men under arms on Emergency . Just as they exiled or arrested Mahatma Gandhi in India and Jomo Kenyatta in Kenya, the British exiled Archbishop Makarios to the Seychelles in February 1956 on the charge of supporting EOKA. We probably should mention that the British troops derogatory nick-name for Archbishop Makarios was Black Mak. By December 1956, British strength on Cyprus was 20,000 troops. The British released Makarios in March 1957 but refused him the right to return home. As a result, he declined to negotiate a peace pact with the British. There was a general strike on the island in April 1958 that brought the island to a standstill. In August of that year, EOKA declared a truce. An agreement on Cyprus Cyprusindependence was signed in by British, Greek, Turkish and Cypriot leaders in February 1959. London
President Makarios Victory Poster
It was decided that
Cypruswould be independent with a Greek president (Makarios), a Turkish vice president (Dr. Faisal Kutchuck), a ratio of 70 to 30 Greek-Turkish representatives in parliament and government services, and an absolute ban on union with or any other state. In what is certainly the strangest career move for a military officer called a terrorist, Colonel Grivas returned to Greece in March 1959 and was promoted to Lieutenant General, the highest rank in the Greek Army. He was also awarded the Grand Cross of George I and made a Commander of the Order Bravery. In December 1959, Archbishop Makarios was elected President of Cyprus and just 11 days later EOKA declared a cease-fire. Greece
It appears that the British also tried to use the threat of International Communism to win support for their occupation of
. This propaganda campaign was run in part by their top secret Information Research Department. Paul Lashmar and James Oliver say in Cyprus Britains Secret Propaganda War 1948-1977, Sutton Publishing, , 1998: UK
The need to divert attention from the fact that
was occupying a country in which the majority of inhabitants wanted self determination was clearly recognized A telegram suggested: Britain
In seems to me that in putting over our case to the American public opinion, more emphasis could be laid on two points: the Communist danger and the
Islands strategic value. As seen from here, the argument about the Communist danger will carry most weight with American opinion...It would be particularly useful if we could insinuate that the issue of Enosis has been gradually exploited and blown up by the Communists, both in Cyprus and in Greece, as a Cold War gambit
At the height of the war, the British had about 40,000 troops and perhaps 400 Turkish police "auxillaries" on
. At its height, EOKA probably had about 300 members. It would seem to be quite one-sided, until one realizes that a Guerrilla army never has to win a battle in the field. They simply need to remain active, causing problems for the government and military, hoping that they will overreact and restrict the local population to the point where they rise up and support the guerrillas. Despite being outnumbered perhaps to the greatest extent in history, the Cypriots ultimately won the conflict. Although they did not win union with Cyprus , the British granted them independence in 1959, with the government of the island passing to the Cypriots who had mounted the insurgency. Greece
This history of
has been one of strife and warfare right up to the present time. Cyprus Cyprusis the third-largest island in the Mediterranean. There have been further battles, partition, UN troops and a host of problems that may never be solved. Hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (the so-called North ). The 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south. It runs 180 kilometers, encompassing three per cent of the island's surface area. Cyprus
The UN mandate is; to prevent a recurrence of fighting by assisting pragmatically in the maintenance of the cease-fire; to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order, with particular reference to the security and well-being of the communities as requested and agreed by them; and to contribute to the restoration of normal conditions.
On 1 May 2004,
entered the European Union still divided. For the purposes of this story, we will only look at that period from 1954 to 1959. Let us now look at the Cyprus war for independence in more depth. Cyprus
The War Heats up
In April 1951,
Greecesuggested Unification with Cyprus and offered in exchange to hand over extensive areas in Cyprusand for British military bases. Allegedly, the British and American clandestine services were for the trade, but the British government was against it. Greece
Archbishop Makarios and Colonel Grivas
Colonel George Grivas arrived in
in October 1952. He wandered through the most remote and mountainous regions of the Cyprus Mount Troodosand , seeking for the best and most defensible places that might provide cover for troops and weapons. During his stay in Mount Pentadaktylos , he reached an important conclusion: His planned guerilla offensive would be carried out solely by Cypriots, despite the expressed will of many mainland Greeks, particularly soldiers, to participate. This would help legitimize the resistance in the eyes of the international community, while Cyprus would find it much easier to face British accusations and political pressure. Greece
Andrew R. Molnar mentions Grivas recruiting techniques in Human Factors Considerations of Undergrounds in Insurgencies:
, one of the first steps taken by George Grivas, the leader of the Greek Cypriot insurgents was to organize a cadre of specialized terrorists. Never numbering more than 50, this small group "terrorized half a million people." Significantly, Grivas developed his cadre of terrorists only from the very young Young men combine youthful daring and, after indoctrination, fanatical conviction, and can be made to believe they are behaving in a heroic way. Such motivation makes for an absolutely trustworthy cadre of terrorists. Grivas groomed the youths for their role as specialized terrorists through a process of escalating acts of lawlessness: first they smeared slogans on walls, then they advanced to throwing bombs into open windows or bars. Only after an extended period of testing and training were the youths given their first "professional" assignment of killing a selected target. Cyprus
An example of using youth for assassinations is the murder of Royal Air Force Corporal P.J. Hale on 16 May 1956. According to published reports, two young men approached a hut on the perimeter of
Airfield where two British airmen were working. The youths asked for a drink of water and after finishing their drink they walked away, then turned and fired a three-shot volley through a window, killing Corporal Hale. Nicosia
Three youths were eventually caught by security forces, all from Paleometocho village, near
. They were Michael Koutsottas, 22, Paraskevas Hiropoulis, 18, and Andreas Panaghides, 22. The two older boys were found guilty and hanged; the younger boy was sentenced to life imprisonment. Nicosia
An almost identical case was reported to me by Corporal Colin Fryer in 2013. He was assigned to the 51st Brigade in Famagusta in 1958. He said:
I was assigned to the 51st Brigade Headquarters in Famagusta and was involved in the retaliation in the city for the shooting of Mrs. Cutliffe. This occurred when I was 21 years old. Whilst in Famagusta we often used to swim daily at the guarded beach. It was absolutely beautiful compared to English beaches and we all loved it. For about 6 months I used to bump into a young English lad named Brian Preece and we had great times mucking about in the warm sea. He was the son of an Royal Army Service Corps Sergeant and worked at one of the regimental barracks in the town as a civilian. He was only 17 years old but he was very good looking and had blond wavy hair. All the things I aspired to and didnt have! On 30 October 1958, he was walking to work early in the morning when two Cypriots asked him for a light. One went behind him and shot him in the head with a 45 caliber pistol. I heard reports that they watched him for a minute and then shot him in the head a second time. It was such a tragedy and all to allow that damn Grivas to resurrect his ailing military career. That murder stayed with me a long time and I was about 63 years old before I came to terms with the emotional aftermath. I am now 76 but still think of him. I am sure I am not alone.
Commander Lawrence S. Myers
Commander Lawrence S. Myers found himself in the middle of a bomb-throwing incident near his home in
one foggy morning. He was in his station wagon with his two daughters following a British lorry filled with married non-commissioned officers enroute to their regiments outside the city. There was a crowd of Greek students milling about outside the high school entrance which he had to pass: Famagusta
Suddenly, I was aware of an object thrown by one of the students, aimed at the lorry and its soldiers. Fortunately, it missed the lorry, but landed just in front of my right front tire, exploding behind me and leaving a large pipe bomb fragment in the back of the rear seat. One of my daughters said Daddy that was a bomb! Had it exploded one or two seconds earlier, one or both of my daughters would have been killed or injured, as they were sitting on the right side of my American station wagon.
In 2015, Commander Myers, now 94 years old, wrote to me to tell me a bit more about his experiences on Cyprus. He said in part:
We were terribly lucky to get only an 8 to 10-inch piece of pipe bomb shrapnel in the rear seat of the station wagon that the NSA rented for me and my crew to use. Only much later did I learn that Reuters had a short piece on the front page of the Times of London, stating that I was killed by that bomb.
I had an earlier run-in with a Greek mob on the edge of Nicosia one night when, driving a borrowed English civilian's car, I had picked up our mail at the Consulate and was heading back to Famagusta along the Nicosia wall. I ran smack into a milling mob with a British jeep burning on the left side of the street. I did the only thing I could, glass bottles hitting my borrowed car, by going straight ahead and honking my horn and hoping no one got hit. Later, some young Greeks set fire to the tires of my car in my garage, but a neighbor alerted us and the fire was extinguished with only minor damage to the tires.
There were so many terrorist attacks that I slowly found myself hating those Greeks. Some Examples: The Greeks shot and wounded a Greek woman in Sunday church services, and no-one saw a thing. The British moved her to their hospital in Nicosia, and EOKA unsuccessfully attacked her again. They eventually flew her to London for her continued safety.
Later, things had cooled down a bit and the British tried to set a friendlier tone by playing soccer with local teams. But a town just north of Famagusta scheduled a game and on completion of the game the crowd headed for the village well for a cooling drink. However, the Greeks held back and only the British suffered from the buried explosive.
Another event occurred earlier when a British convoy passing through a small town was similarly ambushed and cost some British lives. The troops turned around and cut down a large number of fruit trees surrounding the town, costing the Greeks a lot of income.
In 1963-1966 my anger toward those civilized Greeks tempered a bit because one of the friends I met at frequent cocktail parties was the Greek Military Attaché in Seoul, Korea, and we became quite friendly.
We have read Molnars American view of Grivas use of youth. Here Grivas discusses the same subject in Guerrilla Warfare:
It is among the young people that one finds audacity, the love of taking risks and the thirst for great and difficult achievements. It was to the Youth of
that I made my main appeal and called on to give their all to the struggle. Cyprus
The tasks which I assigned to the youth of
were the following; the printing and distribution of proclamations, the rousing of patriotic demonstrations, the collecting of information and the shadowing of suspects. Subsequently, I assigned young people the task of forming groups of saboteurs, the manufacture of explosives, and the supervision and execution of orders concerning passive resistance. Finally, the youth were a testing ground and nursery from which I selected fighters for my groups of guerrillas and saboteurs. The youth of Cyprus endured everything but never yielded, giving a fine example of self-sacrifice and heroism. They have written pages of history of which the Greek Nation will always be proud. Schoolboys between the ages of fourteen and seventeen undertook dangerous missions such as the blowing up of aircraft at the British air-bases, the laying of mines and the blowing up of police stations. I doubt whether there was a single boy above the age of twelve who did not take part in some mission during the Cyprus campaign. I know no other example in history where the whole of a country's youth, boys and girls, has taken so active and effective a part in the struggle for their country's freedom. Cyprus
James S. Corum writes about Grivas Intelligence coups in Training Indigenous Forces in Counterinsurgency, March 2006:
The insurgent commander, Colonel Grivas, prepared the insurgency by quietly searching out sympathizers among the Greek Cypriot policemen. With morale and conditions in the police force low and desire for enosis high among the Greek population, Grivas had no trouble recruiting selected policemen from every branch of the force who would provide the insurgents with detailed intelligence information. From 1954 to 1958, as many as 20 members of the
Police worked as active agents for the insurgents. During the insurgency, some police officers actually hid wanted EOKA terrorists on the sound assumption that the last place the British would search would be the home of a police officer. Cyprus
In October 1952, Archbishop Makarios traveled to the
He organized a three-month information campaign on the U.S. question. He met with politicians and representatives of Greek community organizations, he talked to radio and TV stations and, finally, he formed a liaison committee called Justice in Cyprus , with the support of wealthy Greeks and Americans. This is what we call Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield. He was setting up the world public to recognize the legitimacy of the insurrection that he knew was coming. Cyprus
In 1954, the British intelligence services a Cyprus Directorate in the island. It began creating databases with names of Cypriots likely to be involved in an anti-imperialist struggle.
Londonwas already aware the movement of Colonel Grivas, and refused to issue a visa for his visit in that year. He landed secretly in Cyprus , and the British were informed of his presence. Grivas had certain advantages. Most Cypriots supported EOKA in its fight for independence and the British administration was manned with Greek-Cypriots who could provide the rebels with intelligence. Cyprus
EOKA Slogan on Wall
We want to join with
even if we have to eat stones Greece
Starting about 1947, the Turkish press started directing the publics attention to Cyprus, expressing
Ankaras concerns over Greek demands for Union. The newspaper Hurriet pioneered in the campaign to return to the Turkish Motherland, while, in 1948, the Turkish Culture of Cyprus Club was founded. The same year, the first massive Turkish-Cypriot rally against Union took place in Cyprus . A young aggressive lawyer named Rauf Denktash urged his compatriots to resort to armed struggle in case the British give Nicosia Cyprusto . Greece
In August 1954, despite the behind the scenes efforts of
Britainand the U.S., Greecebrought the issue of to the U.N. This move alarmed Cyprus . Prime Minister Menderes said in a speech to the National Committee for the Salvation of Cyprus that the island would never unite with Turkey Greece. Most Turkish political leaders made similar statements. The Turkish press accused the Greek Church of sponsoring the EOKA movement. Under the supervision of the Turkish PM himself, offices of the ultra-nationalist organization is Turkish were founded in most cities. Kamil Enal, an agent of MIT (Turkish Secret Service) was placed on the executive board of this organization in order to keep it under the full control of the state. Cyprus
At the end of 1954, George Grivas established a permanent base in
, under the outmost secrecy, and started training Cypriots in the use of arms and grenades, as well as in the sabotage tactics. A valuable source of support during these difficult initial stages of the armed struggle preparations was the priest Stavros Papagathagelou, leader of the Christian Orthodox Youth Association. His members were involved in the delivery, transportation and storage of military equipment, while the most committed of those were chosen to man armed groups. The priest involved himself with the publication of a secret newspaper and the recruitment of new members to the organization. Nicosia
On 1 April 1955, EOKA officially announced the beginning of the Cypriot Liberation struggle. Bomb attacks shook the island. Two weeks later, the base of the British 9th Signals Regiment in Aghios Nicolaos was attacked.
It has been suggested that the date of the first attack (Aprils fool day) was selected to cause confusion to the British. Were the attacks real or some sort of joke? Grivas stated later that the psychological aim of these attacks was to create the impression to the British and the worldwide public that there was a massive resistance movement, and not just the isolated actions of a few radical individuals.
The First EOKA Leaflet
As the first bombs exploded on 1 April 1955, EOKA leaflets were disseminated in Cypriot villages and towns. The text is:
With Gods help, faith to our righteous struggle, the support of all Greeks, and the help of Cypriots, WE START OUR FIGHT AGAINST THE BRITISH RULERS, having as a dictum what our forefathers left as a holy testament, COME BACK WITH YOUR SHIELD OR ON YOUR SHIELD
From the depths of the centuries, they look upon us all those who glorified Greek history, the soldiers of Marathon and
, Leonidas 300, the fighters of the Albanian front. The fighters of 1821 have turned our eyes towards us and teach us that that freedom is only won with BLOOD. All of Hellenism is watching us as well, with anxiety and national pride. Salamis
Let us show with our actions that we will surpass them.
The time has come to show to the world that, even if international diplomacy is UNFAIR and COWARDLY, the Cypriot soul is nevertheless brave. If the conquerors do not want to give us our freedom, we will take it ourselves with our own HANDS and BLOOD.
Let us show to the world that no modern Greeks can bear slavery. The struggle will be difficult. The tyrant has the means and numbers.
We have the SOUL. We have RIGHT on our side. That is why we will WIN.
Look at the result of your work. It is a disgrace in the 20th century for people to shed their blood to win their FREEDOM, this holy present for which we fought on your side, while you claim that you have fought for against fascism and Nazism
Wherever you are, listen to our voice.
FOLLOW US FOR THE FREEDOM OF
Note: The text uses a great deal of patriotic historical images. Come back with your shield or on your shield was the farewell of Spartan mothers when their sons left for war. Let us show with our actions that we will surpass them was from the Oath of the Athenian Warriors.
Sir John Harding
With the situation clearly beyond the governments ability to control it, the governor was fired in September 1955. Recently retired Field Marshall Sir John Harding, formerly Chief of the Imperial General Staff, was appointed Governor General of
. He was well versed in putting down insurgencies, having already fought them in Malaya and Cyprus . The British acted quickly. The British Prime Minister criticized Athens Radio, saying that Kenya nurtures terrorism. The British blocked the signal of the station, and broadcast messages saying that EOKA is made of incompetent agents of political terrorism and cowardly killers. The British authorities published propaganda announcements and the press was censored. Urban streets were filled with propaganda leaflets against EOKA. The initial British priorities were Infiltration of the EOKA, blocking the Athens Radio Station and the sponsorship of a Greek-language moderate newspaper that would present to the Cypriots a plausible alternative to Union with Athens . Greece
Harding wanted to build his police force so that the Army could be used against the rebels in the mountains. He greatly expanded the size of the Auxiliary Police against the advice of experienced colonial officials who knew that swearing in Turkish-Cypriots would alarm the Greek Cypriot population and lead to open conflict between the islands ethnic communities. By 1956, the Auxiliary Police had been expanded to 1,417 personnel mostly of Turkish origin. In September, a new police force, the Special Mobile Reserve, was recruited exclusively from the Turkish community. The Special
MobileReserve was to serve as riot police and received considerably more training than the Auxiliary Police receive.
Harding refused to worry about the long-term effects of recruiting police from the Turkish community, and failed to ensure that the police had training or competent leadership. Expert advice from the outside generally was ignored Harding did not see the insurgency as a prolonged war, but rather as a campaign to be completed victoriously by inflicting a few sharp blows against EOKA. He was confident that, with his ample resources, he could finish EOKA quickly.
If Harding carefully had planned to alienate the entire Greek population of the island and push the moderate Greeks into full support of EOKA, he could not have done better than by his policy of unleashing a horde of untrained, poorly-led Turkish police on the population. When the Turks rose against the Greeks, usually in response to an EOKA killing of a Turkish policeman, the all-Turkish Special Mobile Reserve and Auxiliary Police routinely stood by as Turkish mobs assaulted Greek civilians and ransacked their property.
The abusive behavior of the
Police was a godsend to the insurgents, who made the actions of the security forces a central theme in their international propaganda campaign. Claims of British police abuse were made by the Greek media and brought to world attention with the support of the Greek government. Cyprus
Security force misbehavior played a key role in mobilizing world opinion against
. In the end, the insurgents were grateful for Hardings strategy. Colonel Grivas, the insurgent leader whom the British never caught, declared that the first act of the new government after Cypriot independence should be to raise a statue to Field Marshal Harding, since he had done more than anybody else to keep alive the spirit of Hellenic resistance in Britain . Cyprus
British Anti-EOKA Leaflet
This British leaflet uses the shocking photograph of an assassinated Cypriot face down in a pool of his own blood to attack EOKA and its gunmen. The text is very straight forward:
Which was the crime of this man?
He might have been heard saying that he was tired of all the terrible brutality.
He might have disputed the alleged right of certain bigots to speak on behalf of the Cypriot population.
Maybe it was just due to the fact that the Moloch of EOKA needed a victim in order to maintain his
. Kingdomof Terror
How can they do such things in behalf of freedom?
The Cypriot population knows that real freedom is in the Atlantic Charter.
Freedom of speech
Freedom of religion
Freedom from hunger
Freedom from fear
There is no freedom under the shadow of an armed man.
Note that the British used the term Moloch to identify Grivas. The Moloch is a divinity worshipped by idolatrous Jews. The chief feature of Moloch's worship among the Jews seems to have been the sacrifice of children, and the usual expression for describing that sacrifice was to pass through the fire, a rite carried out after the victims had been put to death. The British seem to imply that to follow Grivas is to sacrifice your children.
British Government Leaflet distributed in Limassol in 1956.
WHAT EOKA OFFERS:
Blood, sadness, fear, destruction of the children, the loss of a peaceful life, economic troubles, confinement to your house, terrorism, shootings, that's the bad name they give Cypriots all over the world.
It is now very obvious that the British are deeply involved in
and they are not leaving. The problems EOKA say they are solving EOKA created. It is a big mistake and the people admit it. Grivas is more interested in the personal glory that he hopes to get than the happiness of the Cypriot people. Cyprus
WHAT IS THE WAY OUT FROM ALL THIS ANIMOSITY?
Stop all the killing by EOKA. Forget the use of force and work together in co-operation that will give Cypriots the chance to have political independence. Know that the beginning of self-government was rejected and it is impossible to have in these conditions.
If all the people work together for the happiness of
, there will be peace, happiness, and self-government! Cyprus
It is not impossible to abandon the force of arms, working together for the constitution that will give the Cypriots the chance to conduct their own affairs. The recognition of this is the beginning of self-determination. But it is not possible for it to be done under the present situation that is in force at present.
All people - there are a lot of reasons happiness on the island.
EOKA stop the killings.
PEACE - HAPPINESS - SELF-GOVERNMENT!
Not much is known about the British leaflets to
. We can probably say with some assurance that the majority of them were safe conduct passes, surrender leaflets and leaflets offering rewards for information on the insurgents or weapons caches. There were probably consolidation leaflets too; those that support the government in power and attempt to convince the population that a legal government is better than a rebel government. Finally, I would assume that there were leaflets that featured various known rebels and attacked their cause calling them criminals or Communist terrorists. Cyprus
We do not know how many leaflets were printed and airdropped over
by British aircraft. We do have one short description of the propaganda campaign written by Tom Driver of the Glider Pilot Regiment in the June 1963 Falling Leaf, the quarterly publication of the Psywar Society. He says that an average run of leaflets was 120,000 copies. Of those, generally, 105,000 were airdropped and the remaining 15,000 were distributed by hand. The number of leaflets dropped on a specific community was not fixed. If there was guerilla action in a certain area the leaflets dropped there would be increased. In addition, certain important themes like surrender leaflets were often printed in greater numbers than the average. He gives an example of Cyprus ; that normally would receive a drop of 2,500 leaflets, but received 8,000 surrender leaflets. In a case where a special leaflet was prepared, the number of villages targeted might be doubled. Famagusta
British troop laden truck with banner in 3 languages warning
the population "Disperse Or We Shoot"
Famagusta, several Navy personnel were housed there between 1954 and 1957. They assisted the British in establishing an effective electronic intelligence-gathering facility, one of several that were eventually put into operation. They worked closely with the British 9th Signal Regiment at the Ayios Nikolaos (Saint Nikolas) Station, part of the Dhekelia military base. After independence, the United States kept the base as a sovereign administered area. Commander Lawrence S. United Kingdom Navy (Ret.) said that his tour in Cyprus was the most memorable three years of his 25 years' service: Myers, U. S.
I, and my six Navy Chief Petty Officers, all with families, were in civvies, ostensibly as Canadians. Our job was to keep an eye on the Soviet Black Sea Fleet from Cyprus. As a newly-promoted Lieutenant Commander I was in charge of a Joint US-UK analysis group, assisted by Lieutenant Bryan Lambert, Royal Navy, in charge of six RN ratings, with twelve Royal Signals blokes rounding out the crew. This was an outstanding group and we did a bang-up job. My group arrived in
9 September 1954, and EOKA began its terror campaign against the British government shortly after that date. Nicosia
I always thought it was funny that we were there in civvies, supposedly Canadians. Ha, ha. Trying to hide Americans in plain clothes is laughable. After our clandestine arrival, my household goods arrived in a large shipping box, clearly labeled with my name and rank.
In general, the number of leaflets was decided by the number of people in the village, how their politics were perceived by the British (was it a hotbed of EOKA support?), and how accurately the leaflets could be dropped. Where the villages were on level ground and the drop could be controlled, less might be disseminated. If the village was on the side of a mountain, where many leaflets could be lost or blown away, more would be dropped.
Colonel Grivas and a Young Student
This British propaganda leaflet shows a young Greek school boy about to be pulled into the grasp of an evil-looking Colonel Grivas. The implication that he will be turned into a terrorist and his peaceful life as a student is over.
The British apparently divided
into runs. Each run was a specific area and an aircraft would airdrop leaflets on villages within that area. The runs are identified as: Cyprus Famagusta, Kyrenia, Lefka, Limassol, Paphos, , Troodos and the long narrow northeast strip known as the panhandle. Each run consisted of approximately 40 villages except for Troodos which had only eighteen. Nicosia
Mother and Dead Child
This British leaflet depicts a weeping Greek mother carrying the limp body of her dead child. The implication is that he was killed by the terrorists and only their defeat will bring peace to Greece. The text is:
Saint Dometios Saturday
Making a deplorable sacrifice for the terrible fury of EOKA
Saint Dometios is a suburb located west of the Cypriot capital of Nicosia. It has a population of around 12,100 (in the 2001 census) making it one of Cyprus biggest municipalities. I can find no record of an EOKA action in the city but the British clearly are indicating that there was an insurgent attack and a child was killed. Since it mentions Saturday, we can assume this was a tactical leaflet, prepared and disseminated just a few days after the action while it was still fresh in the citizens minds.
The leaflets were thrown out of the aircraft in lots of about 100 from heights of 30 to 200 feet. If the village was large, the leaflets were dropped from a greater height and the wind was used to disseminate them. If British soldiers were on the ground waiting to hand distribute the leaflets, the aircraft dropped them in packed bundles of about 5000.
There was an attempt to use a method where leaflets were placed in a cardboard folder, secured with a nylon cord and a small fuse. In theory the folders could be tossed from the aircraft at six-second intervals, the cord would set the fuse and they would open 200 feet above the ground. In practice the system was a failure. It was time consuming, the fuses often did not work and it was a fire hazard. On one test run, the cord was accidentally pulled and the leaflets were scattered about the aircraft cabin.
Driver finishes by mentioning some codenames for operations such as Operation Sparrowhawk I and II in Kyrenia and then gives a typical leaflet drop for each of the runs mentioned above. We will mention just one, a typical run over the Lefka area. The number of leaflets dropped on each village is: Phlia 100, Galini 50, Pano Pyrgos 50, Kato Pyrgos 50, Pakhy Ammos 25, Kambos 100, Evrykhou 100, Nikitari 40 and Vizakia 40.
EOKA did not have the luxury of aircraft or radio stations but regularly sent proclamations to the people. After 1,500 commandos were brought to
Cyprusfrom in September 1955, it stated: Malta
The more troops you bring to the island, the greater your losses will be.
Shortly afterwards EOKA issued thousands of copies of one of its most provocative statement. After calling the Cypriot people to the path of honour and sacrifice, the statement concluded as follows:
Since the Americans and the British are in an unholy alliance, we rest our fight upon our moral power and our right. Since the U.N. left us no other means to achieve our freedom, we are left with no choice but to shed blood. And this blood will fill the hands of the Americans and the British. British! Leave
Cyprus, or else you will fill it with your blood.
In February 1957, the British closed down some high schools. The British Governor had ordered the schools to either take down the Greek flags Grivas had ordered flown or close. The headmasters of the schools were so severely intimidated by the EOKA that this brought secondary education to a halt. EOKA published a leaflet full of admiration for the students, reminding them of the weight of their historical heritage:
The petty tyrant closed down some schools, with the excuse that they were using a foreign flag. These are Greek schools, and it was the Greek flag that were waving
These events demonstrate that EOKA is right to point out that freedom comes first and education shall follow. That is why to give rifles to the teenagers and leave education for later. Because if we do not achieve our freedom now, we will never achieve it, while there is always time in the future for education
The leaflet went on to provide examples of teenagers and students who were arrested, tortured, and convicted. On 16 December 1957, Grivas spoke to the youth:
Do not falter in the face of violence. Your chests should turn into volcanoes. Freedom is won with blood, and not through peaceful whining. The latter is for cowards. Honor those who are wounded. War wounds are decorations. Laziness and egoism are signs of national and social decadence. Shame to those who choose them when others fall in battle.
The Greeks regularly attacked the British with stories of brutality and atrocities. The British were forced on to the defensive by the stories from 1956 onwards. In June 1957, the British Government issued an 11-page statement entitled, Allegations of Brutality by British Forces in
Refuted. The British called the Greek propaganda campaign The Smear Technique. Cyprus
Wanted Man Booklet
The first British arrest warrant was published on 4 April 1955 for Gregoris Afxentiou. Information leading to his arrest would be rewarded with
250 poundssterling. The Cypriot people destroyed most of the posters. This forced the police to provide its officers with special pamphlets which contained photographs of the wanted persons.
Grivas Wanted Image
The British next put posters on the walls all over
with four different photographs Grivas, one with a Greek Army officer uniform. 10,000 pounds sterling were offered as a reward for information that would lead to his arrest. Other EOKA fighters were soon identified, the amounts offered for their arrest up to 5,000 pounds sterling. Cyprus
Courtesy of David Carter of British Small Wars
The above wanted poster is for Neophytos Sophocleous, a Greek Cypriot employee at the Governor's Mansion. He placed a bomb under Field Marshal Sir John Harding's bed in March 1956. It failed to explode and the unsuccessful assassin fled to the mountains where he joined his EOKA comrades.
Second Lieutenant Michael Buckley of the Royal
regiment was mentioned in dispatches for his action after this assassination attempt: Norfolk
On 21 March 1956, 2nd Lieutenant Buckley was in command of the Guard Platoon at Government House. At about 11.50 am he was called to the Governor's bedroom where what was thought to be a time bomb had been found in the Governor's bed. On entering the bedroom he confirmed that the object was a time bomb. He asked for a shovel and using it, carried the bomb out of the house, placing it in a sandbagged weapon pit where it exploded a few minutes later. The bomb was in a very dangerous state and might have exploded at any moment when once disturbed. The calm and gallant way in which this young officer handled the difficult and dangerous situation with which he was faced deserves the highest praise.
Time Magazine of 2 April 1956 added:
"We will get you, even in your bed." Thus the Greek Cypriot underground, in a mimeographed leaflet signed "The Leader Digenis," gave
's Field Marshal Sir John Harding its warning several weeks ago Britain
There, sandwiched between the mattress and springs of Harding's bed, they found a small brown-paper parcel that looked as if it might contain a bookexcept that a small tube protruded from one end. Guard Commander Michael Buckley took the time bomb outside and placed it in a sandbagged dugout. Ten minutes later its gelignite charge exploded with a force that would have demolished half of Government House itself. The overage World War II pencil-type detonator, which works by acid eating through metal and is normally timed to explode about twelve hours after setting, had taken around twice that time to work. Informed of the bomb, Harding mused: "That's funny. I slept better than usual last night."
Grivas apparently planned at least three attacks on Hardings life, all unsuccessful. At the same time he was trying to kill Harding he used every available medium to attack him. Greeks were encouraged to send hate letters to the Governor which likened him to Genghis Khan, Tamerlane and Hitler. He was described as a bloodstained ogre whose hands drip with the blood of his victims. At the same time, Radio
attacked the Governor, accusing him of tyranny, vandalism, and cowardice. Athens
Another measure that the British adopted was to put a red X on the names of fighters who have been arrested or killed, in order to weaken the morale of the Cypriot people. I should mention that this is still done today, most recently on the wanted poster of Iraqi officers and officials after the
Operation Iraqi Freedom invasion. U.S.
Reward for Arms Leaflet
Later in the war the British administration published a special catalogue with rewards for delivering or supplying information for the existence of firearms and explosives. Notice that the price of weapons have risen considerably. The amounts offered as a reward for each type of weapon were the following:
Light machineguns: £ 500
Automatic rifles: £ 150
pistols: £ 150
rifles: £ 50
hunting rifles: £ 40
British propaganda booklet Corruption of Youth
The British 1957 propaganda booklet Corruption of Youth gives various examples of Cypriot youth being led into criminal acts by EOKA. Some of the text is:
There is one aspect of the Cypriot terrorist organisation, EOKA, which has received but little attention: the use by the organisers of violence of young people, including boys and girls of school age, to do their dirty work. They scruple nothing that these young people are thus perverted from a natural abhorrence of crime and seduced from parental control, only to be abandoned when they have served their purposewith every prospect that their lawless generation will become an easy prey to communism.
British propaganda booklet Terrorism in Cyprus
The British propaganda booklet Terrorism in Cyprus is heavily illustrated with photographs of EOKA actions such as destroyed buildings and aircraft and assassinated Cypriots. It was published by Her Majestys Stationery Office for The Colonial Office about 1956 and detailed EOKA terrorist activity in Cyprus from its start in 1954. Captured Grivas documents and diaries show photograph of terrorists in their mountain camp and graphic pictures of terrorist killings and bomb attacks on two aircraft at Nicosia Airport. It details the oath taken by combatants and general orders from their leader. It attempts to prove that EOKA was in part funded by Archbishop Makarios.
Only a delayed departure saved the lives of 68 members of service families mostly women and children when two time bombs exploded and burned out this aircraft at
on 4 March 1956. Nicosia Airport
Sir Anthony Eden, Prime Minister of the
United Kingdomfrom 1955-1957 blamed all the Cyprusproblems on Greecein Full Circle, The Memoirs of Sir Anthony Eden, , 1960: London
EOKA received direct support from Greece in money, arms, organization and propaganda. Greek-speaking Cypriots were awed by EOKA terrorists and subject to bombardment by
An example of the British concept of Radio
is mentioned by Stanley Mayes in Cyprus and Makarios, Putnam and Company, 1960. Athens
The author says in part;
Athensbroadcasters, all Cyprushad become a vast concentration camp, rivaling Buchenwald and . British troops indulged in Hitlerite orgies. Patriots were subjected to mediaeval tortures by sadists and cannibals. The British set their dogs to bite their victims to death; they bind and strike the genital organs; they kick their victims in the belly to leave no mark; they inflict burns with red-hot irons; they place metal binders on the heads of patriots and screw them tight to force a confession; they use narcotics and injections to wring confessions; they pierce the breasts of women with needles; they stretch their naked victims on ice and when the patriots die they claim that they were shot while trying to escape. Dachau
Byford Jones adds:
Radio Athens made the most savage attacks Sir John Harding Likened him to Genghis Khan, Tamerlane and Hitler. Others called him "Anthropoid Harding." He was also described as the "bloodstained ogre whose hands drip with the blood of his victims." Another radio speaker said "Field Marshal Harding commits tyranny, vandalism, cowardice and incites treachery."
The British regularly replied to the claims of torture. An example is the Picture Post of 22 September 1956. The article says in part:
The TRUTH about the BRITISH
Next week Lord Radcliffe returns to
with a draft constitution for the island. The fate of suspected terrorists held in British detention - Cyprus Radio calls them British Belsens - camps will depend upon his mission. Athens
Cypruscalls it simply Obviously British troops stationed here against EOKA's bombs and terrorists would not wrestle with its full name, which is Camp K. . It is too much of a mouthful even for Greek-speaking Cypriots. Camp Kokkinotrimithia is one of two installations housing suspected terrorists whose colleagues are still at large. Camp K
In its broadcasts beamed towards
Cyprus, Radio does not simplify either the facts or the name. It rolls out each syllable of Athens to symbolize charges of inhumanity on a scale unknown since Hitler. With sinister satisfaction approaching masochism, Camp Kokkinotrimithia broadcasts invoke the shadow of the swastika and unfold this tale of terror in its own inflammatory words. Athens
Having known the real meaning of
Dachau, we went out to through the heat of an August afternoon. Camp K is certainly surrounded by barbed wire. It has guard towers with machine-gunners posted in them. There the analogy with anything Hitlerian ends abruptly, as we discovered. Camp K
Camp Kwas formerly a isolation hospital. What Cyprus Radio called miserable and dirty wooden sheds are, in fact, barracks-style buildings with some reinforced insulation against heat. Parachute troops living under smothering tentage in the same sort of bare, rocky site would consider it luxury. Athens
Superintendent Timothy O'Donnell, who runs Camp K says he had no preconceived ideas about administration of such a camp until he came to Cyprus, then added, with typical British approach: We are here to give the same sort of humane, just treatment and respect for the individual we would give to anyone incarcerated at home. All the men are compensated for their incarceration. There never have been any women here. Bachelors get a minimum of five Cypriot pounds monthly out of which they can shop at a NAAFI-type store operated by detainees themselves. However, some prisoners draw up to 35
pounds a month. Cyprus
Detainees do absolutely no, repeat no, work. Prisoners buy their own food from outside contractors; decide their own menu, preferring Greco-Cypriot traditional food.
Each prisoner is allowed one visitor's card for adults, plus a reasonable number of children weekly, and families bring food packets. The prisoners are brown and healthy and in good spirits. When we toured the encampment they brought out EOKA signs and sang
Songs, but in high good humor. One got the impression that these men regarded this as adventure. Certainly they will return to their homes and villages as martyrs. There is no line-up as Battle Radio charged. There is no lights-out after a day that begins at 0630, with breakfast at 0730, lunch at noon and supper at 1800. Visits are allowed each day and O'Donnell had a Greek radio playing music all day over the loudspeaker system." Athens
The British tried to make collaboration safer by suggesting that anyone could post information using a code name in order to avoid risking their lives. If the information was correct, the one who posted could go to any police station, report his nickname and receive his reward. The British also offered to send successful informers to
where they would be safe from retribution. London
British officer shot in the street
Grivas talked about this selective use of terror and assassination in his memoirs:
The British who arm their commandoes with knives and instruct them to kill from the rear protested vigorously when such tactics were applied to themselves. It may be argued that such things are only permissible in war. This is nonsense. I was fighting a war in
against the British, and if they did not recognize the fact from the start they were forced to at the end. The truth is that our form of war, in which a few hundred fell in four years, was more selective than most, and I speak as one who has seen battlefields covered with dead. We did not strike, like the bomber, at random. We shot only British servicemen who would have killed us if they could have fired first, and civilians who were traitors or intelligence agents. To shoot down your enemies in the street may be unprecedented, but I was looking for results, not precedents. Cyprus
In November 1955, at a time when British casualties were rising, British officers interviewed by the New York Times said that after the re-organization of Intelligence Services, EOKA would be eliminated within a month.
In 1958, two British paramilitary groups appeared; one called AKOE (the word EOKA written backwards) and the other Cromwell. Both groups prepared propaganda leaflets.
The British Governor of
writes in a letter to the Secretary of State for the Colonies that the above Crowell leaflet was distributed on 9 September 1958. The long text attacks both the EOKA and the Russian Orthodox Church. The grammar is weak but we know what they mean. I suspect that "Bauble" should be "Babble." At the end it threatens to take action if the killing continues. Some of the text is: Cyprus
TO ALL BRITONS
TAKE HEED WE MUST REMOVE THE BAUBLE
I can wait a little longer but my patience is running out.
If any more Britons are murdered my Men of Iron will strike back hard and mercilessly not at the Greek Cypriot villager but at the Manglis, Derviss, Lanitiss who by their greed for power have reduced this island to the level of postwar Greece.
Who or what was Cromwell? Some believe he was a member of the Royal Horse Guards in
Cyprusbecause they trace their origins back to a force raised by Oliver Cromwell prior to the second invasion of . Others believe the Scotland CyprusCromwell adopted the name because the original Oliver Cromwell was the last strong man to govern . England
Sergeant Philip Typist of the Cromwell Letter
Sergeant Philip on a military exercise. You can just make out the Gestetner on his right on which he copied the Cromwell leaflet. The Gestetner is a type of duplicating machine. The Gestetner Cyclograph was a stencil method duplicator that used a thin sheet of paper coated with wax. Ink was forced through the stencil, originally by an ink roller, and it left its impression on a white sheet of paper below. Ricoh has owned the brand since 1995.
In 2013, I received a letter from the United Kingdom from a former British RAF sergeant who wished to remain anonymous. He said:
I was posted to Royal Air Force Nicosia about February 1957. Because of the murder of Mrs. Sutcliffe by an EOKA terrorist my wife and my two sons were not allowed to join me until October 1957. We lived in a bungalow on Cyprus until I returned home in November 1959.
Our job in the Royal Air Force Regiment was the protection of airfields with the Bofors 40mm cannon and small arms. Our role in Cyprus extended beyond airfield boundaries into local villages.
I typed and reproduced the "Cromwell" leaflet. "Cromwell" was a Royal Air Force Regiment officer. I pointed out the poor grammar thinking that it might discredit the writer and message, but was told it was carefully prepared to detract attention away from the real identity of the originator. They did not want the letter to appear to have been written by a college-educated officer.
Yiannis and Wife
I have several EOKA leaflets that were given to me by my landlord, Yiannis. He was a Greek Cypriot who was brought up by an English family and spoke excellent English. My bungalow had a large room blocked off from the rest of the house and only entered from outside. Except during times of a truce I was armed by both a handgun and a British 9mm Sten sub-machine gun. At that time there was only scrub-land between my house and the next village which was Turkish. There were many skirmishes by the Turks against my village. Some of these skirmishes are better called massacres because both Greeks and Turks would be killed and the bodies abused. I was ordered not to take any action other than to protect myself and family. I never needed to do that.
Yiannis, knowing I was armed, would plead to be allowed to move with his family into my blocked off room. I always agreed. Yiannis gave me lots of EOKA, PEKA, ANE and other leaflets telling me they were in gratitude for my protection. PEKA (Politiki Epitropi Kypriakou Agona - The Political Committee of the Cypriot Struggle), was the political wing of the EOKA movement, ANE (Alkimos Neolaia Tis EOKA - Valiant Youth of EOKA) was the youth movement. Both fought against the British and Turkish Cypriots for the union of Cyprus with Greece. I turned those leaflets in.
In 1990, I went back to Cyprus on holiday and contacted Yiannis. He invited me to spend a day at my old bungalow where he and his wife now lived. He asked me if I remembered that he regularly visited his aged mother. I replied that he was a good son. He said that in this case that was not true. He told me that whenever the British found and destroyed an EOKA hideout he was called upon to use his skills as a carpenter to build a new hideout. He said he did it under threat of his and his family's life. EOKA told him he must developer a relationship with me and give me their leaflets as if he had found them in the street. He told me from that time my life was useful to EOKA and I was safe. Apparently, I was the unknowing conduit for EOKA propaganda to reach the British authorities.
On the bright side, I recently discovered that the Cromwell leaflets affected Grivas thinking. How satisfying it is to think that his use of me may have meant some soldiers lives were saved.
The EOKA leaflets also affected officers on our side. The officer I handed the leaflets to was very frustrated. There was a belief among our troops that there was no will to win among the politicians. The rules of engagement required us to hold fire until we had called out "halt stomata...dur" three times. Even though we knew certain priests were carrying guns to EOKA under their robes we were forbidden to stop and search them.
The RAF officer eventually invented Cromwell and wrote the propaganda leaflets because he felt that EOKA was winning the psychological war. The only people who were involved in the Cromwell leaflets were Cromwell, a second officer and me. There were only two leaflets, the original one and a second one threatening to kill two random Greek Cypriots for every British soldier. I typed and duplicated both leaflets whilst on exercises around Nicosia. I assume they were disseminated during those exercises. When I asked why there were no further leaflets I was told "I intend to frighten Grivas, not my country.
Both Yiannis and Cromwell are dead. Both were good men. Cromwell became a prominent member of government.
EOKA Heroes Victory Parade
After Cyprus became independent, Makarios returned to the island on 1 March 1959. Thousands of Cypriots came out to greet him. One of our friends in Cyprus was Roger Aston. He was married to Makarios niece. My wife Joy persuaded him to take her to the victory parade and celebration. He agreed providing she dyed her blond hair and dressed in typical Cypriot women's clothes loaned by his wife.
The Makarios/Grivas Victory Parade Flag
It was still a dangerous place to be British. She watched as General Grivas and Archbishop Makarios drove by in a big flag-bearing car. My brave wife had a flag showing Makarios on one side and Grivas on the other. She waved the flag as their car drove by
If a British civilian were murdered, Cromwell demanded swift retribution by killing two or more Greeks. Should Grivas bomb a British establishment, Cromwell wanted to destroy the equivalent amount of Greek property. British Intelligence Officers discovered several British soldiers were in league with Cromwell. They had duplicated his pamphlets on military duplicating machines and scattered them while on patrol. To avoid bad publicity in the press back at home, those service personnel found to be co-operating with this clandestine organization were quietly and quickly shipped back to the
How many were returned is not known, but at least one NCO of the Royal Signals, based at Dhekelia was sentenced to nine months detention and reduced in rank for distributing leaflets urging security forces to answer EOKA terrorism with violence against Greek Cypriots. In another case, a member of the Royal Air Force was removed from his job at
It is interesting to note that Greek translation of the above leaflet appears in Colonel Grivas' official memoirs so it is clear that he was aware of the anti-EOKA movement.
A member of the Royal Artillery mentioned seeing a Cromwell graffiti comment on a Greek wall:
I came across Cromwell for the first time, when I was on a one-week Pussy Foot Patrol, three of us patrolling in the countryside, by night, laying up by day and getting our rations from secret supply points. One night I crept into a Greek Cypriot village and saw written on a wall, CROMWELL WILL GET YOU, painted above a partially crossed out EOKA slogan saying, KILL THE BRITISH.
An EOKA Leaflet from Sergeant Philip
This is one of the leaflets that Sergeant Phillip was given by his secret EOKA agent landlord. It depicts Greek patriots firing rifles at the top and bottom and a Kladia tree at the left labeled Freedom and 25 March, the date that began the 1821 revolution against the Turks. The rifleman at bottom is labeled Greece 1821 The text says in part:
Today Cyprus with the heroism of its lads, writes a new 21. [Referring to 1821 presumably.]
Freedom blooms with the Kladia tree. The tree has deep roots in the Greek Revolution of 1821, where Greece was freed from the Turkish grip.
On 25 March, Greece turned on the street lights in order to see Freedom. Today, Cyprus writes with the heroism of her children in the new 1821.
The leaflet was distributed in Nicosia on 24 March 1957.
Here is an ANE leaflet from Sergeant Philip. The translation is very rough because many of the words do not translate well to English. I believe the monster is the new constitution that kept the island divided:
CHOSEN YOUNG PERSONS AND THE NEW CYPRUS
Our waiting exhausted us. We were consumed with the hope that in the final hours the miserable employee Lloyd would see the logic and fear to fuel our rage. However the mercenaries, advancing with harsh steps imposed on our population, the constitution - a monster that only a sick brain might expect all to accept and cooperate with.
This monster that will fall, saw the light of day and soon will die. You that are always first; you gave examples of true human value, ready for new fights, new sacrifices, and also new triumphs. The Homeland calls you. All to the bastions! Your heart lights up with the desire of freedom. Your arms are as strong as the Greek soul. Teach the mad governor that the brave youth of Cyprus knows, lives, fights, dies and is overcome with the love of freedom. Learn from our mouth that our decision to bury his monster creation is irrevocable and final.
With faith in the final victory; forward to the fight. Your steps light up the glow of eternal Greece. He, our legendary leader Diogenes, the Titan of Cyprus walks through fire. To the front, children of Greece.
YOU BRING FREEDOM TO THE HOMELAND
Chosen Youth of the EOKA.
The Lloyd mentioned in the leaflet would seem to be Mr. Selwyn Lloyd, the British Foreign Secretary who had a great part in the events leading up to the Constitution of Cyprus.
Sergeant Philip sent me a number of Greek leaflets so I could fill the rest of this article with them. I think I will end with this one. Another all-text rather tedious item distributed in Nicosia on 17 October 1958. Researcher Lee Richards provided the translation from British military records:
IMPUDENCE AND TRUTH
The propaganda of the Tories impudently repeats again that the solution of the Cyprus question is hindered by the anomalous situation which prevails in the Island for which EOKA and the people of Cyprus are responsible.
We would have refused to reply to such hypocritical pretexts if we did not see that persons in whose good will we still wish to believe are being misled. So we reply.
Now, Messrs. Tories, the abnormal situation in Cyprus prevents you from finding a political solution to the question. What have you been doing during the period of the three truces which the struggling people of Cyprus offered to you and which total 17 months? What else have you been doing apart from ignoring the truce and the people of Cyprus and misleading them in order to impose a plan which would make them captives of your interest and those of your unlawful allies the Turks? You have used all means from provocation to the most disgraceful and distressing force, but have not succeeded, neither will you succeed, in bringing the Cyprus people to their knees.
We have declared that we are struggling for our freedom and on the altar of freedom any price is small. Our decision is to win. By refusing to use political means you have forced on us this armed struggle.
If you wish the struggle to cease, follow, even belatedly, the straight way of honest and sincere political means. Then the anomaly will end.
Other very long EOKA leaflets from Philip are entitled Freedom or Holocaust and 25 March.
The former talks about how Greece helped the Allies in WWII in their time of need. They asked no favors or special considerations. The leaflet signed by The leader Diogenes claims that Churchill promised at the time that Cyprus would be Greek. The Turks were British enemies in WWI and neutral in WWII and yet now they are rewarded by the British. The Greeks will never forget and never stop fighting. The Greeks demand Freedom or Holocaust. The leaflet was distributed in Nicosia on 28 October 1956.
The latter leaflet is actually by the political wing P.E.K.A. and talks about the day that Greece woke up from the lethargy of slavery, armed herself with legendary bravery and opened the way to freedom by breaking the chains of the Turkish tyrant. It says that now the same thing is happening in Cyprus. The leaflet asks what is the difference between the old torture of the Turks and the present torture of the British? It says that in Greece the villains were Asians, but now they are civilized Europeans. PEKA protests against the vandalism, destruction of property and murder of innocent children, old men and defenseless civilians. The leaflet ends by proclaiming that 25 March shall be a day of protest against British vandalism in Cyprus. It demands that Greeks go to Church to celebrate the anniversary and then go on a 24-hour strike. No work may be done, no shops open, and no cars may move. This leaflet was distributed in Nicosia on 24 March 1957.
In March 2013, I heard from former Corporal Ken Major who served in Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry (KOYLI) Regiment of the British Army. The regiment had served in Nicosia, Cyprus in 1956. He told me:
I was sent overseas in May of 1955. I was in Kenya, Aden, then deployed to Cyprus. I left Cyprus 1 February 1957 with 64 men from my regiment on the Troopship Cheshire and arrived at Liverpool 11 February 1957. I returned to civilian life after 21 months of national service.
I recently read your article about the "troubles" in Cyprus. I have some leaflets that we used to hunt for the EOKA members, a white and grey propaganda leaflet that our people printed to attack the EOKA, and one that is black and purports to be from the EOKA.
Conditions in Cyprus were pretty rough. We were only allowed out on the streets in groups of four and had to be armed at all times. On one occasion we lost a man to an EOKA ambush.
Comments by other soldiers returning on the Cheshire with Ken were:
There was little relaxation for the troops in Nicosia. There were plenty apples and oranges, but the local beer was just terrible. There was no pleasure at all; all we had were movies in camp and an occasional show from a combined services entertainment group We mostly maintained road blocks and the rifle companies went out on patrol and did a lot of screening in the villages around Nicosia. Some of the troops worked in the snow in the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus.
Ken sent me three sheets, each depicting twelve wanted EOKA members. I show one here. On each sheet there was at least one photograph crossed out. I assume this means that while screening individuals at traffic stops and random searches these wanted men were identified and arrested. Notice at the upper left the British had apparently recaptured or killed 25-year-old Polycarpos Costa Georghadjis of Palekhori who was wanted for escaping from Trimithia Detention Camp on 19 January 1956. At the lower right they have Xed out Nicos Xenophontos, though they do not say specifically why he was wanted.
A British White anti-EOKA leaflet
This colorful leaflet depicts a Greek EOKA member hiding from the bright sun coming up over Cyprus. It implies that he is a creature of darkness and shadows. It is clearly from the British and that is why we call it white. The text is:
We are as sure that terrorism will lose as we are that the Sun will come up in the morning. But, if you help us, the long nights of murders and blood will end more quickly, cleaned by the brilliant light from the east.
A British Grey Anti-EOKA Leaflet
This one has a very interesting image. It shows a tourist map of Cyprus with all the areas that one might want to visit to fish or hunt or see ancient ruins. However, there is a terrible pool of blood across the center of the island, obviously representing the murders committed by the EOKA. We consider this grey propaganda since the British pretend that this leaflet is written by a Greek Cypriot. The text is:
The whole world considered our Cyprus to be a peaceful harbor of Greek culture, where sunshine, love, friendship, reason, free thought and discussion, politeness, and respect of religion reigned.
Now they see our island bathed in blood. They consider us the Cypriot barbarians that shoot sick women in hospitals, murder Christians in churches, throw bombs into the bedrooms of small children, and kill respectable Abbots in their monasteries. CYPRIOTS that cherish our island, the Cyprus you love, show your bravery and your willing spirit to protect the good name of our home and the high purity of Greek culture.
Reject the fanatical terrorists that are covered in blood.
These murderers do not help our national condition; on the contrary, they harm it. We have lost the ability to honestly agree with each other because of these fanatical false patriots
A British Black anti-EOKA Leaflet
This is a very interesting leaflet. It clearly states that it is from EOKA, but in fact the British printed it to attack Grivas, possibly indicating a rival or a more peaceful movement within the organization, and thus we call it black. The text of this leaflet is:
TO PARENTS, SCHOOL TEACHERS, PROFESSORS
Greek deliverance . Greek heritage . Greek spirit
Sir Ronald Storr said that A person belongs to the race that he believes with passion that he or she is. No reasonable person will deny that the Cypriot is Greek; that he thinks as a Greek, he speaks as a Greek, and he feels like a Greek. No reasonable person will deny the Greek character of the Cypriot people.
But Grivas is a false patriot who commits acts of terror and bloody anti-Christian murders.
No Grivas, you cannot quiet your conscience while the blood of your victims covers all of our island.
Is there no Greek deliverance from these bloody murders? This is the gift of EOKA; the gift they try to impose on the innocent people of Cyprus.
Georgios Grivas or Diogenes -
Your murders and spilling of blood will be the reason for Greek deliverance. The Greek Cypriot knows that each day you murder according to the orders of EOKA and decide who should live or die.
It is not just the blood and the murders and the political violence.
Cypriots seek freedom from fear, the freedom of speaking freely, the freedom of democracy, and the freedom from murder and the spilling of blood.
They seek the freedom from lies and deception behind which you try and hide the truth
Grivas, be certain that the real Greek people, the Cypriot population, will turn away from your dark political manipulations and tyranny and seek deliverance.
The Sir Ronald Storr mentioned above was an early British Governor of Cyprus. In a Cypriot revolt in 1931 led by pro-Greek Cypriots (The British called them agitators) he was nearly killed, but a quick British military reaction flying in armed troops from Egypt as well as two naval cruisers and two destroyers from Crete put down the revolt. Storrs personal possessions were lost when a pro-Greek mob burned down Government House. The Greek revolt was fueled by the Bishop of Larnaca who on 20 October 1931 urged his parishioners, Out with the foreigner, down with tyrants, Up with union [with Greece].
An Anti-Greek AKOE Leaflet
The Administrative Secretarys Office,
, sent a letter on 9 May 1958 in regard to the appearance of the first two anti-EOKA and Greek leaflets by AKOE. That gives us the starting date for these leaflets. Cyprus
We believe that all of these leaflets were run off on a mimeograph machine, a duplicating machine that reproduces copies from a stencil, what the British called cyclostyled at the time. The official documents are dated 8 May 1958 so we assume that the leaflets were disseminated on that date or slightly earlier.
The leaflet above calls for all Britons to boycott Greek stores. It is interesting to note that it misspells Greeks as Greks. This is not a good way to start a propaganda campaign. Some of the text is:
If you give money to a Greek you are giving support to EOKA. Do not enter a shop with a Greek name. Change your stall at the market. Support the pro-British minorities.
The leaflet is signed Anti-Killers Organization of Expatriates.
A second leaflet has a longer text but again asks that no British soldier or civilian trade with the Greek Cypriot. We will just quote from some parts of it:
EXPATRIOTS, WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO ABOUT IT?
One hundred and six or your comrades, husbands, sons and brothers have been murdered shot in the back by EOKAs dastard gunmen.
No Greek citizen, be it barman or businessman, chemist or café proprietor, hairdresser or hotelkeeper, sewing girl or shopkeeper, has ever seen an expatriate murdered, even when the outrage was perpetrated in broad daylight and in a crowded street. This proves the contention of Dr. Dervis, Mayor of
that all Greek Cypriots are EOKA. Why not take the doctor at his word Nicosia
as far as possible refrain from buying goods manufactured by Greek Cypriots. In this way you can hit back at those gutless yellow-bellies in the place where it hurts them the most their pockets.
The AKOE or Anti-EOKA leaflet
A third AKOE leaflet was reproduced in the Greek language in the Grivas Memoirs. The English is very stilted here and there may be minor errors. It was translated from English to Greek, then back from Greek to English.
THE AKOE OR ANTI-EOKA
Because of the request that we change our name we have accepted the recommendation of the true friends of
that hate the EOKA and what it represents. From now on, we adopt the simple title the Anti-EOKA. Cyprus
This name includes everyone who is on the island and understands and comprehends the damage caused by EOKA and openly or secretly hates EOKA. The AKOE was created because there was a need to publish our beliefs and we did publish them. Our aim is not to cause villainy as some people claim. We only want to make the population understand that when they use Cypriot products, buy from Greek shops, visit Greek cafes and restaurants, or fill up with petrol from Greek service stations etc., they put money in the hands of Greeks that were been unable to resist EOKA because of their threats of violence.
We are all Anti-EOKAs. We love peace. We do not believe in the use of military force for the achievement of our aims. We do not believe in the use of any form of violence. We warn all our members that we are opposed in any action which would lower us to the level of EOKA.
Our aim is to unite everyone opposed to EOKA and for this reason we believe that the use of name expatriates is a mistake because the majority of the men of Anti-EOKA are not expatriates. For this reason, we are pleased to accept in our organization all the peaceful Cypriots, even if they are Orthodox, or Mohammedans, or Armenian, or Maronites and of course every member of the British Empire.
We also seek the complete boycott of all the shops from which English-language signs were removed. If you do not see the name of a shop, bar, cafe or hotel written in English, the householder of this shop is a collaborator of the EOKA and he should be boycotted.
AKOE was taken more seriously by the authorities in
Londonand , but its backers were never discovered nor were there any AKOE-engineered incidents. Nicosia
Another anti-EOKA organization was called ICO. The letters might mean Immediate Counter Offensive. It distributed English language pamphlets after Cromwell.
One of their leaflets disseminated in
was signed ICO and claimed to be from a British organization whose aim was to deal with terrorists. The leaflet said in part: Nicosia
Bringing offenders to court is no good any more. The only way to deal with Greeks is to make this race fear the security forces. The security forces should not stand round like sheep and watch their comrades slaughtered. Retaliate and make the Government realize that sterner methods are needed when dealing with savages.
The Greeks will be intimidated by our members whenever the opportunity presents itself. This will make some stubborn Greeks realize that terrorism is not a game.
We have so far all tried, soldiers, police, expatriates alike to put an end to violence and intimidation with the minimum of force and with politeness. This method apparently does not work. It seems the only thing Greek people understand is force.
All these groups urged the British and the Cypriots to attack EOKA without mercy and to only buy British products only (a response to the boycott of British products by EOKA).
The British propaganda booklet Church and Terrorism in Cyprus
claims that the Greek Church is heavily involved with EOKA
and quotes various documents to prove it.
The British had found the diary of Colonel Grivas and used it to publish a series of propaganda pamphlets against the EOKA. Some of their titles were: Greek Irredentism and Cypriot Terrorism (1956), Greece and Cyprus: the Politics of Terror (1957), and Church and Terrorism in Cyprus (1957). British newspapers presented Makarios as the chief terrorist, while the
pamphlet Churchand Terrorism in showed the image of a corpse next to a photo of Makarios, and the ten commandments on the background (with the command thou shall not kill written in bold). The Church became a target of British propaganda attacks, but Foreign Office diplomats soon realized that such a policy discredited their arguments and directed their attacks solely to the face of Makarios, and not towards the Church as an institution. Cyprus
Do you Approve of these Things?
At the same time,
Greecepublished a number of propaganda pamphlets attacking the British rule of . One such publication was entitled Do you Approve of these Things? It was published by the Union of the National Resistance Press, Cyprus , 1956. It has 62 pages and many photographs of British soldiers in Athens, Greece . The contents are as follows: Cyprus
Chapter 1 British Atrocities in
Chapter 2 Torture
Chapter 3 Murders
Chapter 4 Arrests-Imprisonments-Concentration Camps
Chapter 5 Savagery Committed Against Villages
Chapter 6 Penalties of Collective Revenge
Chapter 7 Vandalism and Sacrilege
Chapter 8 Persecution of Education and of Students
Chapter 9 Illiberal Measures against the Press and the Radio
Chapter 10 The Voice of the Combatants
Towards the end of 1958 when the settlement of the Cypriot question appeared imminent,
started readjusting its propaganda and PSYOP tactics. The British government attempted to convince the hostile public opinion of its country that Makarios was no longer a terrorist, but a reliable negotiator. London
British intelligence officials secretly admitted that the political environment in
made it almost impossible to eliminate EOKA. Governor Harding seemed to be favoring the Turks and thus lost all appeal to the Greek community. At the end of 1958, he admitted: Cyprus
Army officers with significant experience in facing revolts in
Kenyaand Malaya are unable to help in the peculiar conditions of Cyprus
Moreover, some incidents of torture, lack of discipline and retaliation stigmatized the British forces. With the exception of some occasional low quality infiltrators, the British authorities were unable to attain any cooperation from the Greek-Cypriot community.
Britain had tried to use detention camps as they had done with such success in Malaya and
. Based on Emergency Laws, the British government arrested and jailed whoever it considered as suspect without ever proceeding to a trial. Whoever was arrested during the first years of the fighting was taken to the Central Prison of Nicosia, or to the Kenya . Following that, the Kokkinotrimithia detention camp was opened, and was used as a prison for thousands of Greek-Cypriots. It is believed that the population of Greek Cypriot suspects housed at castleof Kyrenia never exceeded 1600. Camp Kokkinotrimithia
Lately, there have been a number of cars burned and bombs set off on city streets. We inform you that our organization has nothing to do with these acts of sabotage, which are the work of others; most probably the British Intelligence Service.
In May 1956, Two thousand troops took part in a sweep of the Troodos Mountains, aided by Auster spotting aircraft and helicopters. Seventeen guerillas and a large quantity of weapons were captured. Thousands of EOKA documents and identities of its members were also found. The British had tried to instill fear in EOKA in May 1956, and hung the guerrillas Karaolis and Demetriou. This led to demonstrations in the streets of
Athensand complaints to most major cities of the world: Paris, Rome, Bonn, Moscow, Washington, and . Another act of support to the people of New York was the massive return of British medals of Honor from the Second World War. Hundreds of Greeks, who have been decorated because they fought on the side of the British forces during the War, returned their medals in protest for the execution of the two Cypriot patriots. Apart from military reprisals, EOKA also responded to British terrorism by publishing leaflets in which it protested against British crimes and rejected the arguments of the conquerors. A fragment of such leaflet reads as follows: Cyprus
imperialists are calling us killers and terrorists and are surprised when others consider us patriots... London
The Greeks on
wrote a number of patriotic songs which were used to keep up their spirits. Some of their titles are: Lets Go, Children of Cyprus, The Dawn shall Come, His Mothers Favorite, Freedom, Hail to EOKA, It was April First, Rise, oh Warriors, Were All EOKAs Children and the EOKA Anthem. Cyprus
The British never ceased using PSYOP, especially through radio broadcasts that called for EOKA warriors to surrender their arms. On 22 August, the radio transmitted the British proposal, with detailed instructions on how EOKA guerillas can surrender:
You will be allowed to choose: either to depart for
Greece, or to stay in and face the consequences of your actions, as members of a terrorist group. If you depart for Cyprus Greece, you will be declared persona non grata, and you will never be allowed to return to ... Present yourselves at the nearest police station or military camp. If you carry a gun, hold it in such a way that it cannot be used. When the guard calls you, hold your hands up and yell I surrender. Cyprus
Grivas answer to the offer was:
To the disgraceful British suggestion to surrender, I reply: Remain and hold your positions, like true heroes. We will fight to the last man, like Greeks do. Our fight should not be dishonored by even a single surrender. Our slogan is:Freedom or death.
The British also took part in some black propaganda campaigns. Stephen Dorril mentions one in MI6 Fifty Years of Special Operations, Fourth Estate,
Operation TEA-PARTY was an authentic black propaganda operation run by the Information Research Department (IRD).
A handout given to journalists declared that schoolgirls had been required to prostitute themselves with fellow members of EOKA.
A later pamphlet described the sexual relations of such girls with members of the killer groups, alleging that one of them had her first lover at the age of twelve.
The IRD became a thorn in the flesh of the Colonial Office, for its insistence on presenting the
problem in terms of communism. Secret intelligence reports were dangled before American correspondents, who were told that captured documents - which they never actually saw confirmed that EOKA was in league with the communists. This was a totally distorted view; the Cypriot Communist Party (AKEL) link to EOKA was tenuous at best. EOKA was, in fact, anti-communist and r became engaged in a feud with AKEL, which eventually denounced the use of terrorism. Cyprus
Grivas talks about psychological warfare in Guerrilla Warfare:
We were very much at a disadvantage. The
Government had on its side: Cyprus
1. Organized British propaganda, which, in Cyprus, was carried on through the Press, radio and certain persons from England who visited Cyprus pretending to be our friends but, in effect, were agents of the British Government.
Government Broadcasting Station and the BBC. Cyprus
3. The whole of the government machinery and the Turkish element in the island whose fanaticism the administration stirred up against us, as well as the Communists whose support the authorities had enlisted on their side and who did everything in their power to counteract our efforts, both by word and action.
4. Special propaganda leaflets which circulated in hundreds of thousands of copies and were sometimes scattered by air over the whole island.
5. The use of force and bribery through the distribution of abundant funds.
What did we have on our side? Firstly, leaflets which we published and which were circulated all over the island with marvelous success.
The Greek Cypriot Press, which was censored and subject to very severe penalties if it published information that might help our cause, was not in a position to help us outright.
As we had no printing press at our disposal, our pamphlets were mimeographed. The service which dealt with the issue and distribution was organized by sectors. Despite the efforts made by the authorities to discover where the pamphlets were printed and attempts to prevent their circulation, and notwithstanding the severe penalties enacted against those who distributed or read them, the pamphlets continued to be issued and circulated freely, thanks to the great care and precaution with which the whole service was organized. It was the young people who undertook the dangerous task of distributing the leaflets, and they carried out their task admirably. They invariably succeeded in scattering the pamphlets about the streets or delivering them at houses without being caught.
Secondly, there was propaganda by word of mouth. This was as effective as the pamphlets. When well organized, a whispering campaign yields first-rate results. However, such propaganda had its dangers because it exposed the persons concerned, especially during discussions in closed premises, to being overheard by enemy agents who were lurking everywhere. In our propaganda, whether by pamphlet or word of mouth, we had one valuable advantage which the other side lacked - truth. The British, by resorting to all kinds of lies to mislead the people, finally succeeded in persuading them that whatever came from an official source did not correspond to the truth.
THE HUNS RETURN
of Mau-Mau leads the British to overwhelm our rebellion, destroy us, and burn the forests that constitute the beauty and the wealth of our island. They foolishly think that by these acts they can stop us from attacking their army. Marshall
The English Vandals swarm like the armies of Ibrahim of the Peloponnese and the barbaric Huns of
Europe. For this they deserve the title The Huns of the North.
Both the Cypriotes and the Greeks will remember with disgust the passage of the insufferable Huns of the North through our island.
[Note] The EOKA text is very interesting in how it uses characters from world and Greek history. Field Marshall Sir John Harding, formerly Chief of the Imperial General Staff and Commander-in-Chief of the Middle East Command was appointed Governor General of
Cyprusand the guerrillas ridicule him as a of Mau-Mau. We dont know much of "Marshall Marshalls activities in , but it is clear that he had served there and taken part in the fight against the Mau Mau movement. Kenya
The barbarian Vandal and Hun tribes are both compared to the British.
Finally, there is mention of the historical Egyptian leader Ibrahim of the
Peloponnese. On 6 July 1827, England, Franceand Russiasigned the Treaty of , thereby recognizing the establishment of a free Greek state. The Greeks agreed, but the Turks did not and fought to keep the Greeks in bondage. After the Greek forces defeated the Turks, the Ottoman leader asked the Egyptians to send their French-trained army to carry on the fight. Ibrahim Pasha was the son of Muhammad Ali, the leader of London . If he defeated the Greeks he was promised the title of Mora Valessi (Ruler of the Peloponnese), and Egypt Crete, Cyprusand the Peloponnesus. Ibrahim proceeded to destroy and burn islands and towns in his drive to destroy the rebellion. His forces devastated the Peloponnesepeninsula and the Greek cause seemed hopeless. However, due to the Turkish refusal to accept the Treaty, on 20 October 1827, a combined British, Russian and French fleet attacked and destroyed the approximately three times larger Turkish-Egyptian fleet at the of Navarino. The Allies cut their supply lines and this effectively ended the Egyptian invasion. Battle was free. Greece
The panic-stricken soldiers of heroic Harding murdered a 10 years old child in Agridia Pitsilia and a 75-years old man from the Arakapan with the excuse that they broke the blockade.
What were the cowards afraid of?
The attack of a child and an old man?
Behold who the real murderers are.
But they will pay.
THE BRAVE GENERAL AND HIS HEROIC SOLDIERS
A seven-years-old child was murdered in Larnaca by the brave-hearted men of Harding, who, unable to face the fighters of
Cyprusordered his soldiers to shoot even the little children, thinking that in this way he would scare the people of . Cyprus
Cervantes hero, Don Quixote, mistakenly attacked wind-mills because he had the illusion that he was attacking live enemies. Harding, whose mind no longer thinks clearly because of his many defeats, ordered the shooting of little children, defenseless creatures, because he knew that none of them could offer resistance.
The little boys murder occurred like this:
There was a demonstration in Larnaca. English soldiers armed like lobsters were afraid to approach St. Lazarus square where the demonstrators awaited them with rocks in their hands. In order to intimidate the crowd they preferred to show their heroism by shooting at a shop in a side street of Agis Onisiforos where four or five children had gathered.
Hardings troops murdering a young child how brave! The soldiers realized that there would be a protest and ran away as if they were chased by the ghost of the dead child.
The general protest was so great that even an English woman who knew the innocent child burst into tears when she learned of the murder.
We ask the father of the child why he did not protest the murder of his son, wondering if the English forced him to remain silent. He has not given us an answer.
As regards the brave general Harding and his brave men, they have our best wishes.
What does Harding Conceal?
WHAT DOES HARDING CONCEAL?
Harding is terrified by EOKAs activity and afraid of an outburst of the public in
against him. He conceals much of the the sorrow and the destruction in the camps and other military areas. England
Thus, besides the concealment of his losses which have been reported in earlier proclamations, he also concealed the following:
The water supply of the Cantonment Diocese and of the camp at Polemidia was lost due to the repeated attacks that we led.
The use of the airbase of Akrotiri, destroyed by our forces on 19 September 1956 and left with an eighty-five meters long crack in the runway that we caused.
On 14 September 1956, our soldiers got into the camp 4 kilometers from Varosion on
Nicosia avenueand blew up a tank and about 80 batteries.
In June of 2014, I received a letter from former Royal Air Force Senior Aircraftman Eric Sharp, an armorer assigned to 249 Squadron who was stationed at Akrotiri Airbase when a second EOKA attack occurred. It told me about his experience:
On 27 November 1957, I heard an explosion and there was smoke rising from the other side of the hill. It was our brand new hangar that was in flames. It had only been opened a few weeks before. Our Squadron Commander took control of the situation and wanted volunteers to enter the hangar to save some of the aircraft. We entered the hangar but the hangar doors were then closed on us I suppose to starve the fire of oxygen. The official number of aircraft written off was four but I am certain there were 6 Canberras. A few of us pushed a De Havilland Venom fighter towards the doors which were then opened to let us out. It was very hot. Months later I heard that the person steering the aircraft received some award for his heroism while the airmen who were much nearer the flames doing the pushing didn't even receive a thank you. It is unfortunate that the overzealous RAF policemen were confiscating all of the cameras or we would have had a fantastic historical record of the event.
Long Live our Fighters
LONG LIVE OUR FIGHTERS
Another hero dies and joins the Pantheon of the Cypriot fight: KYRIAKOS MATSIS.
His heroic death marks once again the bloodstained path that every fighter will follow, to face the tyrant always with a finger on the trigger and with the firm decision either to destroy the enemy or to die. It shows every Cypriot Greek (man, woman, and child) the path of the honor and the duty that has to be followed for the success of our fight. It cries out to the civilized nations of the ideals, self-sacrifice, and ethical strength that the fighters for Cypriot Freedom are endowed with.
The gaps of those that leave us forever are filled immediately with our reserve, which in their turn look forward to joining this fight and with the noble ambition to become even more heroic than their predecessors.
The nation of brave men, with their heroic dead and their titanic fighters never dies, but always WINS.
May the memory of our dead fighters be eternal.
Long live our fighters.
TO CYPRUS YOUTH
TO CYPRUS YOUTH
You have shown once again that the inextinguishable torch of the Nation burns within yourselves. With the enthusiasm of the fighters of our liberation struggles and with the self-sacrifice of those who prefer death to slavery you daily raise the glory of our struggle to higher standards and you will continue to do so until it reaches the zenith.
I proudly follow the titanic struggle you wage by the side of our titans who strike the tyrant with arms and bombs, and I command you: Do not bend in front of any force. Let your breasts become volcanoes pouring out lava in order to clear away the dirty miasma of Nazism and tyranny from our island. Let your bodies become leveling-rollers to sweep away the neo-Nazism from Cyprus.
Enslaved people achieve their freedom by shedding blood and not with peaceful cries. Only COWARDS cry.
Wounds sustained in struggle are medals. Honor to those who bear them.
Inactivity and selfishness are characteristics of national and social downfall. Shame on those who remain inactive at a time when others fight and fall.
Be ready for new struggles and new glories if it becomes necessary for Cyprus to ask you to join the ranks of legendary A.N.E.
NOTE: A.N.E. is Alkimos Neolaia Tis EOKA (Valiant Youth of EOKA). ANEs wide range of duties included surveillance and intimidation. As they demonstrated proficiency as gunmen, they were promoted to full membership of EOKA
Signalman Norman Barber
Signalman Norman Barber of the 2nd Squadron, 2nd Wireless Regiment, picked up this leaflet on King Edward Street in the town of Famagusta while he was stationed in Cyprus with the British Army in 1958. He said that EOKA regularly threw leaflets from speeding cars. He believed that this leaflet was addressed to Cypriot Youth.
The British PSYOP specialist Lee Richards helped find the translation of this leaflet from his regular visits to the British Archives. He told me:
There was a real battle of leaflets in Cyprus. For example between the beginning of 1957 to the end of 1958, security forces found over 1,200 different leaflets on the streets of Cyprus produced by both Greek and Turkish insurgent groups, e.g. EOKA/PEKA, AKEL, EK, TNT, and Volkan. Most of these were simple cyclostyled typewritten leaflets with occasional crude line drawings.
On 9 January 1956, Kyriakos Matsis was arrested by the British. He was personally questioned by
Governor Sir John Harding who offered Matsis £500,000, a new identity and relocation if he would reveal the whereabouts of EOKA leader Colonel Grivas. Matsis replied, This struggle is for virtue not for money. Matsis was imprisoned and escaped with six fellow inmates on 13 September 1956. Matsis and two companions were eventually surrounded by British troops and he ordered his comrades to surrender but refused to do so himself. When the British commanded him to come out, he answered, I'll come out shooting! The British then firebombed his hideaway. When the smoke cleared, his dismembered body was found. Cyprus
The strategic goal of EOKA was never to beat the British. The goal of EOKA was the systematic exhaustion of the opponent, through merciless and continuous guerilla attacks, in order to create a political environment that would facilitate the achievement of
Union. This was clarified by Grivas himself, who noted that the aim of EOKA was to increase the awareness of international public opinion and to internationalize the Cypriot question, in order to force the UN to take the appropriate actions that would satisfy the demands of Hellenism.
The Turkish resistance to EOKA is mentioned in depth in A History of Cyprus, by Dr. Stavros Pantelli, East-West Publications,
, 2000. Pantelli points out that soon after the EOKA campaign began, a counter Turkish underground organization was established. It was called Kara Yilan (Black Snake). It was the predecessor of Volkan (The Volcano). UK
French-speaking DrFazil Kutchuk and British trained barrister Rauf Denktash represented Turkish nationalism. Turkish Cypriots joined Dr Kutchuk's Turkish Cypriot Popular Party. The party later became the Cyprusis Turkish Party under Hikmet Bil, who arrived in the Island in 1955 from for this purpose. Kutchuk then became chairman of the Cyprus is Turkish Party, which propagated the theory that self-determination for Cyprus would result in the annihilation of all Turks, civil war and ultimately total unrest in the middle east. Turkey
As EOKA hit harder at British military personnel and installations, more British jobs were taken away from Greek Cypriots and given to Turks. Separate police units were formed, manned mainly by Turks under British officers, whose task it was to control Greek disturbances and help the army fight EOKA.
On 11 January 1956 Abdullah Ali Riza, a Turkish police sergeant who had given evidence at the trial of EOKA members, was shot dead. This precipitated Turkish Cypriot attacks against Greek stores in
. The Turkish underground organization Volkan issued leaflets on that occasion threatening reprisals - five Greek lives for every Turk killed. Nicosia
Kutchuk protested to Governor Harding and in a message to Makarios demanded that the Greek community condemn the murder. At Vassilia village, fighting broke out between Greeks and Turks on 19 March 1956 and about 20 people were hurt. On the following day, 500 Turks smashed the windows of Greek-owned shops and offices in the Turkish quarter of
. On 23 April fighting again broke out after another Turkish police officer was shot dead. On 25 May, crowds of Turkish Cypriots attacked Greek stores and premises in Nicosia , Limassol, Larnaca and Paphos. Similar disturbances took place in January and February of 1957. Nicosia
The Turks answered their Greeks rivals in kind. This 17 August 1957 leaflet attacks a number of Greek political positions and even the Greek Church. It says in part:
Did you forget that archbishops succeeded their predecessors by poisoning them and that street fights were fought between your left and right brothers? Dont you know that the Greek youths shot in the streets as traitors were killed for the sole reason of strengthening the position of your archbishop? Are you claiming it in the name of freedom? Now I am asking you WERE YOU NOT NEARER TO ENOSIS BEFORE EOKA WAS IN EXISTENCE?
The Turks were now determined to achieve their object of taksim (partition) and Volkan, led by Rauf Denktash, would be their means. The fighting arm of Volkan, and its successor late in 1957, was called the Turk Mudafaa (sometimes Mukavemet Teskilati, the Turkish Defense or Resistance Organization. For short, it was known as the TMT.
David Carter (left), the editor of the
Cyprussection of the Britains Small
Wars website and Rauf Denktash, the leader of the Turkish Cypriots
and later president of the
Turkish Republicof Northern Cyprus,
meet in 1989 at a briefing on the
In November 1957, the Turkish TMT published its first leaflet, in which it claimed that it would act throughout
and urged the Turkish-Cypriot people to support its actions. The members of TMT took an oath on the Koran and the Turkish flag: Cyprus
I give my word that I will resist to any attack against Turkish lives and property. Our organization will only be dismantled when the glorious Turkish flag waves in
. I dedicate myself to the Turkish nation. Cyprus
A TMT leaflet distributed in Larnaca on 6 June 1958 included the following:
O Turkish Youth! The day is near when you will be called upon to sacrifice your life and blood in the PARTITION struggle - to the struggle for freedom. You are a brave Turk. You are faithful to your country and nation and are entrusted with the task of demonstrating Turkish might. Be ready to break the chains of slavery with your determination and will-power and with your love of freedom. All Turkdom, right and justice and God are with you. PARTITION OR DEATH
The TMT, though smaller and less well organized, followed EOKA tactics. Hence, the boycott of British goods, which EOKA had ordered on 6 March 1958, was now applied by the Turks to Greek produce. Turks caught smoking Greek cigarettes or using Greek shops were beaten up by gangs of youths. Any Turk who deviated from the national line that coexistence with the Greeks was impossible was liable to be denounced as a traitor.
In spring 1958 two Turkish Cypriot democrats who belonged to a Greek and pre-dominantly left-wing trade union were murdered by TMT, not primarily for their ideological beliefs but mainly because such membership involved co-operation with the Greeks. EOKA was taking similar action against its traitors.
By mid-1958 Turkish Cypriots were sure that soon the tide would turn their way. On 7 June 1958, Turkish Cypriots started fires in
. In two months of bitter communal strife, 56 Greeks and 53 Turks were killed. Paphos were burnt down. In Nicosia , the Olympiacos club and other places suffered the same fate. Nicosia
Passions reached a climax on Thursday 12 June 1958, when the Turks massacred eight Greeks during a clash near the Turkish
. The report by the Commission of Inquiry (Sir Paget Bourne, Chief Justice of villageof Guenyeli Cyprus, was the sole Commissioner) was published in on 9 December 1958. The commission sat from 20 June to the 28th. It found that the 35 Greek prisoners from Skylloura had been rounded up by the security forces and, surprisingly, released on the same day near Guenyeli, seven miles from where they were arrested and a considerable distance from the nearest Greek villages. This incident has gone down in Cypriot history as the Guenyeli Massacre, organized by the British and executed by the Turks. Nicosia
On 4 August, Grivas issued a cryptic leaflet declaring a five-day cease-fire against the British and Turks, but reserving the right to future action in the event of provocation.
The TMT responded two days later with orders that all armed groups should stop their activities until further notice, that no Greek property should be touched unless Turkish property was touched and that no pressure should be brought to bear on Greeks.
Although communal strife did not break out again the August cease-fire soon broke down because the authorities continued to hunt EOKA men. Grivas, who had by now become more of a legendary figure and was described as Apiastos (the one who cannot be taken), ordered his execution squads back to work.
Rauf Denktash, who was becoming increasingly popular among the Turkish-Cypriot community during that era, said later:
Everyone, including the British services, believed that I was the leader, that I was making all the decisions! But I was not. Army officers in
were in head of TMT. Turkey
As the Cypriot Turks entered the conflict EOKA responded by intensifying its activities and with a rigorous propaganda campaign as well. One of its leaflets to the British conquerors and their Turkish collaborators said in part:
We shall not negotiate our right to
We shall immediately answer the horrible crimes of the Anglo-Turks. That is to say:
For the murder of every Greek by the British, we shall execute Englishmen.
For the murder of every Greek by Turks, we shall execute Turks .
The Greeks finally decided to compromise from their hard line approach of Union, and
Uniononly. Both Makarios and the Greek Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis started referring to the possibility of independence, or even autonomy. It might be that some of the Cypriot Greeks were tiring of the war. For instance, we know that in 1958 EOKA published a leaflet in which it named Cypriots who acted as agents of the British.
In October 1957, John Harding submitted his resignation. He was replaced by Hugh Foot. The new governor appeared to be appeasing and conciliatory. In Christmas of 1957, for example, he freed 222 prisoners, including 24 priests.
In spring 1958, EOKA published leaflet, urging passive resistance. The main aim of the economic sabotage of firms that cooperated with the British or imported British, was to show to the world that the struggle of the Cypriot people enjoyed wide acceptance, and was not a case of fanatical extremists, as was claimed by British propaganda. The Cypriot people responded to the call of EOKA , causing some damage to the British economy that may have amounted to millions of pounds. The boycott of British goods was probably not successful and was eventually abandoned on the instructions of Archbishop Makarios after some merchants faced bankruptcy.
Grivas gives his own view of passive resistance in Guerrilla Warfare:
This was a powerful weapon which reinforced and supplemented the armed struggle. I know of no other case in which this method was used on such a wide scale and with so effective an organization, except in
under Mahatma Gandhi. My principal object in organizing the boycott was, first, to make a moral impression on the British people and, second, to create difficulties for the Government of India by reducing its resources. It is a fact that, as the result of our passive resistance, the Cyprus Government became bankrupt. No longer able to meet its expenditure, it was forced to borrow from the Cyprus banks and from public corporations, besides instituting a government lottery. Cyprus
British R.A.F. Warning Poster depicting numerous EOKA Attacks
This 11 February 1959 Royal Air Force Nicosia warning poster entitled Apathy + Laxity is a warning poster for the troops to keep up their alertness and watch out for bombs and other terrorist activities. It is not unlike the WWII Loose Lips sink Ships poster. Numerous acts of sabotage are depicted on the poster such as: Hermes destroyed by bomb April 1956; bomb explosion station cinema January 1957; bomb in water chlorination plant April 1958; and two bombs found under NAFFI settee September 1958.
This is not to imply that EOKA was passive. Quite the contrary. In the latter part of 1958 EOKA shot and killed a British Sergeant named
Hammondin Ledra Streetin . In October they shot two British Army wives, killing one. This caused the Army to lose control and they arrested over a hundred Cypriots, many of whom were beaten so badly that they died. Some British defenders refute that Greek claim and one stated to me that only three Greek Cypriots died, one from natural causes, and none was killed by beating. He adds: Nicosia
British Forces were furious at EOKAs tactics to place bombs in prams and throw grenades into family bedrooms. Mrs. Cutliffe, the wife of a sergeant in 29 Field Regiment, Royal Artillery, was murdered by Kikis Constantinou. At the end of the 1955-59 conflict, he joined the Greek Army contingent based in
as an officer and continued to train Greek Cypriot militia irregulars for attacks against Turkish Cypriots in the post-December 1963 civil war. Cyprus
A British soldier is quoted:
There is no disguising the fact that a degree of force was used during the roundup. I have the utmost sympathy for those injured and their families, and will not try to make excuses for the behavior of some of our troops. I will merely state that during my tour of duty in
, I saw very few acts of gratuitous violence used by British troops. I saw plenty of callous behavior by Greek Cypriots towards their own people and how they walked ignored injured British troops and civilians, some of them mere children. Even after all these years it makes my blood boil thinking about it. The majority of servicemen in Cyprus were 19 & 20 year old men, friendly to a point of naivety. Cyprus
The British NAAFI Club after the bomb explosion.
On the eve of Remembrance Sunday, Saturday 7th November 1958, two Royal Air Force members were killed by a bomb in a Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes (NAAFI) club.
On Christmas Day, 1958, the UN Assembly unanimously approved the proposal which called for a peaceful, democratic, and just solution in accordance with the principles of the UN Charter. On the morning of 11 February 1959, the radio station of
Cyprusannounced that Athensand Ankarareached to an agreement regarding the question on the basis of independence . Cyprus
The British detention camps were closed in February 1959. It is estimated that more than 3,000 fighters were jailed there, some of them for two to three years. Thirteen fighters are believed to have died from torture in police stations and detention camps.
In 9 March 1959, Grivas issued his message Cypriot He wanted to visit the graves of his deceased comrades The British refused. It was not until 1987 that
officially recognized EOKA and the national resistance of the Cypriot people. Greece
Bernard B. Fall said in the Naval War College Review, Winter 1998, The Theory and Practice of Insurgency and Counterinsurgency:
Remember that the British fought in
, and seemingly had everything in their favor. It is an island half the size of Cyprus . The Royal Navy, which can be trusted to do its job, sealed off the island from the outside. There were 40,000 British troops on New Jersey under Field Marshal Sir John Harding, and his opponent, Colonel George Grivas, had 300 Greeks in the EOKA. The ratio between regular troops and guerrillas was 110-to-1 in favor of the British! After five years the British preferred to come to terms with the rebels. Cyprus
Curiously, although it is known that there were never more than 300 to 400 members of EOKA, during 2005 and 2006 the Greek Cypriot President Tassos Papadopoulos awarded no less than 21,000 EOKA medals to so-called EOKA members. Apparently, like the thousands of alleged veterans of the Vietnam War in the
, there are many Greek wannabees. United States
The EOKA medal depicts Gregoris Afxentiou, code names Zedhros and Zodro. Grivas called him, The eagle of Pentadactylos.
A former truck driver from Lysi, he served as a lieutenant in the mainland Greek Army from 1948 to 1952. He was EOKAs second in command, an effective guerrilla, killed 4 March 1957 in a 10-hour-long battle near the Machairas Monastery in the
. His final battle was between his small gang and the Security Forces, including members of the Duke of Troodos Mountains s Regiment, the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers and the Grenadier Guards. Of the 5-man Greek Cypriot gang, four surrendered. Wellington
Despite his comrades surrender, Afxentiou refused to come out of the cave. Eventually a Royal Engineer dropped gasoline into a hole in the roof. It was set alight and the cave exploded. When the troops were able to enter, they found his charred body. Underneath was a copy of Christ Recrucified by Abbot Irineos.
While some British troops give Afxentiou respect for his stand, considering him one of the few EOKA members who stood and fought, others are more critical. One has cynically observed:
This engagement has fast become one of the epics of Greek history, taking its place in the exaggerated speeches and writings of Cypriots with Koungi, Arkadi,
Thermopylaeand Gravis. The inexperienced EOKA gunmen, who took part, are likewise being likened to the Titans and the half Gods.
Today there is a large monument to Afxentious memory, erected by the Greek Cypriot authorities. They have carefully restored his hideout, which has become a pilgrimage site for school children.
One of the most interesting things about Gregoris Afxentiou is that a bomb was named after him. During WWII the Russians used an incendiary bomb usually containing gasoline in a bottle that they called the "Molotov Cocktail" in honor of Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, the Foreign Minister and Secretary of War of the Soviet Union during World War II. In Cyprus, a similar "cocktail bomb" was named after Afxentiou. This "Afxentiou Cocktail Bomb" could be made in different variations and used as an incendiary time bomb or an electronically detonated incendiary bomb.
The British side never did recognize EOKA as anything but terrorists. The 1956 official guidance booklet issued to all service members: Why we are in
Since March 1955, the political agitation of the Church, the active sponsorship of the Greek Government, and the violent outpouring on Athens Radio in support of the cause of ENOSIS have been supported by an underground terrorist organization known as EOKA. This organization, which copies Stern Gang methods, is an extremist right-wing organization, led by a Greek national, Colonel Grivas, who led a similar strong-arm Fascist organization in the Greek troubles after the war. The organization represents only a small minority of the people of
. Their immediate aims are far more extreme than is demanded by Greek Cypriot public opinion. Cyprus
The British presented EOKA as a group run by hot-blooded extremists and reactionary churchmen. They could not admit the simple fact that the struggle of the Cypriot people was massive and expressed the perpetual demand of the Greek community to unite with the national fatherland. The demand for
Unionwas adopted by all social classes, from the bourgeois of the cities to the simple villagers. This entire dynamic is summarized in three words only, the words of the mayor of , Themistoclis Dervis, to the British Governor, John Harding: Nicosia
WE ARE ALL EOKA
It is interesting to note that even today the Greeks and Turks see the war in a completely different light. What is really amazing is that both sides have commemorative museums on the island with the same name.
The Greek Cypriot Museum of National Struggle
of National Struggle was built in the 1960s in commemoration of the EOKA struggle against the British. The letters EOKA are spelled using photos of dead heroes. Guns are on display to show how well equipped the British were in contrast to the EOKA fighters. The Museum focuses mostly on the struggle between the British and the Greek Cypriots, making only passing references to Turkish Cypriots. Greek Cypriot Museum
of National Struggle was constructed in 1978. The letters TMT are spelled using photographs of dead fighters and the comparison is made between the guns used by TMT and the guns used by Greek Cypriots in order to show the latters military might. The Greek Cypriots are presented as the archenemy in this museum with only passing references to the British. Turkish Cypriot Museum
The Turkish Invasion of Cyprus 1974
Turkish Patriotic Poster
Armed conflict returned to Cyprus in 1974. On 15 July 1974, the military Junta in Greece backed an uprising in Cyprus that overthrew Cypriot president Archbishop Makarios and installed Nikos Sampson in his place. Makarios had begun to move away from the concept of Enosis with Greece and leaned instead toward national independence for Cyprus distinct from that of Greece.
At the same time, civilian paramilitary groups on the island, namely, the National Organization of Cypriot Fighters; Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston B (EOKA B) and the Turkish Resistance Organization; Turk Mukavemet Teskilati (TMT) were becoming more powerful. The Greek Cypriot National Guard joined the traditional call for Enosis and no longer supported Makarios.
Turkey, apparently believing that the Turks on Cyprus were in danger and using the overthrow of Makarios as an excuse, launched a military invasion of the island on 29 July 1974 called Operation Attila. Turkish troops eventually seized 37% of the territory of Cyprus in the north. About 142.000 Greek Cypriots living in the north, nearly one quarter of the population of Cyprus, were forcibly expelled from the occupied northern part of the island.
The Turkish invasion ended in the partition of Cyprus and the authorization of an UN-monitored buffer zone known as the Green Line which still divides Cyprus today.
To the Turkish and Greek Population of Cyprus.
The Turks dropped numerous propaganda leaflets on Cyprus before and during their invasion. I have seen about a dozen, but will just depict a few of the ones that have interesting images. The leaflets are sometimes found with Turkish and Greek text (since the two peoples lived together at that time) and sometimes in Turkish only. As might be expected, the former leaflets spoke mostly of peace because the Greeks could read them; the latter leaflets were patriotic and encouraged the Turks on Cyprus to join the battle. The first three leaflets we show are in both languages, the last two just in Turkish.
The leaflet above depicts a smiling Turkish soldier holding the flag of a united Cyprus and promising peace and brotherhood to all. It is amusing to see an invasion leaflet promising peace and love, but the Turkish civilian name for the invasion was the Cyprus Peace Operation" (Kıbrıs Barıs Harekatı).
To the Turkish and Greek Population of Cyprus.
We bring you Peace + Fraternity + Freedom
Another Turkish leaflet depicts a Greek military officer sitting on a throne, with a weeping woman chained to one leg. She hugs two children. At the bottom of the leaflet are numerous graves. The text is:
Greek soldier, you do not serve the Junta, which is far from your house, your children, your woman and those you love, You are deceived by the Fascist adventurers, your leaders that murder the Greeks of Cyprus. Do not let this island become your grave.
The third two-language leaflet I will show from this second Cyprus conflict depicts Turkish fighters diving on Cyprus and destroying Greek tanks and bombs. Curiously, there are three English words on this leaflet, boom, and weapons & Ammo. One wonders why English words would be on a leaflet aimed at Greeks and Turks, but perhaps the Turks felt that the Americans and British would see this leaflet and hoped to make clear that this was an anti-military operation and not an invasion to take land and kill Greeks. The text is:
The objective of the aircraft which you see above is up to you and your families.
Their objective is to attack those forces that have polluted this island forever by their continued selfish interests and to eliminate the use of weapons and military supplies to kill innocent Turks.
The Commander of the Turkish Peace Forces in Cyprus.
The Time for Your Reward
The first Turkish text only leaflet depicts a Turkish soldier taking aim with his rifle. A Turkish flag is behind him. The text is:
The time for your reward for your heroism has come. Defend the borders of your homeland.
The Commander of the Turkish Peace Forces in Cyprus.
It will be your own Heroism
The second all Turkish leaflet depicts a soldier on a hilltop in front of a Turkish flag. The text is:
It will be your own heroism that will become the key of our victory and our safety.
The Commander of the Turkish Peace Forces in Cyprus.
As always, the author invites comments on this article. Kindly write to him at Sgmbert@hotmail.com. In addition, anyone who has either British or Greek leaflets used in
is invited to send them so that we might add them to the article. Cyprus
End: 23 June 2007