SGM Herb Friedman (Ret.)
Note: Images from this article were used in Three Practical Lessons from the Science of Influence Operations Message Design by M. Afzal Upal, Canadian Military Journal, Volume 14, No 2, 2014.
What is a mistake on a psychological operations (PSYOP) propaganda leaflet? Donald Fish wrote about such a leaflet in Airline Detective, Collins, London, 1962. His story could be true or could be apocryphal.
Allegedly, when the time came for the invasion of North Africa, a decision was made to prepare a leaflet to rally the Arabs to the Allied cause. The job of translating the text went to the sole Arabic expert in the Political Warfare Department, a certain Mohammed Ali, a green-tea merchant from Casablanca who had first rallied to the Free French and later come over to the British after the collapse of France. The pro-Allied leaflet was printed using his translated Arabic text and dropped in the millions over the local population.
After the invasion, an American intelligence officer who had taken part in the landings found his way to the Allied Political Warfare Group on Gibraltar. He had a handful of the leaflets and he said to the officer in charge, "What the hell is this stuff you have been dropping all over the country?"
The political warrior replied, "Those are leaflets to rally the Arabs."
"Do you know what they say?" asked the American.
"Yes" said the propagandist, "of course I do." They say, "Victory rests with the Allies."
"No they don't" said the American. "They say Buy Mohammed Ali's green tea."
I am positive that story is a myth, but it leads us to the concept of psychological campaigns that were prepared but had some minor error of lack of understanding of the local culture that made them less than valuable. There are many such blunders. We will just discuss a few of the more interesting ones.
World War I
Im Not Sure I Want That Medal
The German propagandists have always been heavy-handed. Someone once said that they so love propaganda that they cannot do it well. One of their worst WWI propaganda blunders occurred when a medal was commissioned to honor the submarine sinking of the unarmed British passenger liner Lusitania. The Germans were so proud of the sinking of the commercial vessel that Karl Goetz designed a medallion honoring the victory. One side shows the ship going down with the words "No contraband" at the top and The liner
sunk by a German submarine 5 May 1915 at the bottom. The engraver added cannons and airplanes on the deck of the ship to justify its sinking. The back of the medallion depicts a mob of people buying Lusitania tickets from a figure representing death and the words "Business above all" while a man in the crowd reads a newspaper with the headline U-Boat Danger! Lusitania
Unfortunately for Karl Goetz, he put the wrong date of sinking on the medal, an error he later attributed to an error in the newspaper account he had read. Instead of the correct date of 7 May, Goetz engraved 5 May, two days before the actual sinking of the
. This allowed the British to claim that the Germans had waited for the ship to leave port and committed wholesale premeditated murder. Goetz later corrected the date but it was too late by then. Lusitania
British Intelligence copied the medallion and advertised it around the world to show the barbarian nature of the Germans. Some 300,000 British replicas of the medallion were made on the instructions of Captain Reginald Hall R.N., the Director of Naval Intelligence. The British imitations were presented in special boxes with a view of R. M. S. Lusitania on the outside. They were sold for 1 pound each, with the proceeds going to St. Dunstan's Blinded Soldiers and Sailors Hostels and the Red Cross. A label on the box holding the medal read:
The Lusitania (German) Medal. An exact replica of the medal which was designed in Germany and distributed to commemorate the sinking of the Lusitania. This indicates the true feeling the War Lords endeavour to stimulate, and is proof positive that such crimes are not merely regarded favourably, but are given every encouragement in the land of Kultur. The Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine on May 7, 1915. She had on board at that time 1,951 passengers and crew, of whom 1,198 perished.
This German medallion infuriated Americans who had relatives on the liner. In some ways it helped to lead the United States into World War I. It surely was one of the great propaganda blunders of all time.
Inside Outside Whats the Difference?
The British also blundered while trying to counterfeit enemy Turkish banknotes during WWI. They went to great pains to produce a very good imitation of the genuine note, and then ruined the entire effect by printing some numbers facing in the wrong direction. The story was first reported by Scott Cordry in an article entitled "World War I counterfeits of German and Turkish notes," Coin World, July 13, 1988.
The British military forged the Turkish 10 livres regular issue banknote of 1915. This was part of a plan to destroy the Turkish economy and weaken their political strength in the
Near East. The forgeries each have a different serial number. The size and feel of the paper is identical to the genuine notes and the colors are almost perfect. The excellent forgeries have a glaring error. All along the border of the note there are small Western and Islamic number 10s inside small six-pointed stars. Somehow the British forgers engraved the Western and Islamic 10's along the left border of the back side facing toward the outside of the note, rather than inward as on the genuine notes. This is a major error and one that would make the counterfeit immediately recognizable to even the most unskilled eye. The error certainly destroyed any chance these fake banknotes had of destroying the Turkish economy.
World War II
Surrender? Whats that?
During WWII the Japanese forces had a well-earned reputation for fighting to the death. On Island after island thousands died in "Banzai" charges or committed suicide rather than be taken prisoner. Under their rules of Bushido, if they surrendered they were disgraced and lost from their family and ancestors forever.
Ignoring this cultural belief, the United States printed propaganda leaflets for the Japanese that said "I Surrender." They did not work. The Japanese troops continued to fight to the death. The Manila Chronicle, 19 October 1945, interviewed Sergeant Albert B. Gerger about persuading Japanese soldiers to surrender. The Associated Press later distributed the story worldwide. Gerger mentions that the early leaflets were unsuccessful. The Americans were not sure why leaflets that seemed to be so well written and illustrated had such poor results. Filipino scouts were sent into the field to study the problem.
A Japanese soldier was seen to examine one of the leaflets and then throw it on the ground, grinding it under his heel as he muttered 'Mujokan Kofuku,' the most despised term a Japanese soldier can utter, 'surrender.' From the time a Japanese can understand the meaning of simple words it is driven into his mind that the worse crime he can commit is to surrender. For this there is no forgiveness and one who surrenders sacrifices everything; his property, honor, rights, rights in life and after-life, and the respect of his fellow man.
Our experts in psychological warfare held a huddle and came up with a new one, replacing the 'I surrender' on the leaflet with 'I cease resistance.' It worked.
The Japanese indoctrination was not based on logic or intelligent thought. The Japanese knows that he must not 'mujoken kofuku' and that is all. There is nothing in his learning that prohibits the cessation of resistance.
The failure of the "I Surrender" leaflets led the American PSYOP specialists to carefully construct a leaflet with the words "I Cease Resistance." The change was minor, but to the Japanese the new wording meant a world of difference. One could cease resistance, pretend to be unconscious, or run out of ammunition and allow himself to be taken while never surrendering. A curious use of the Asian concept of "face."
Anybody Know Where Cassenverein Is?
During WWII the American Office of Strategic (OSS) Services authorized an operation called "Cornflakes." The idea was to drop mailbags over the site of trains that had been attacked and derailed. The mail, containing propaganda material from the Allies, would then hopefully be delivered by the Germans to the addresses on the fake envelopes. Of course, this all assumes that you have spelled the town correctly. The "Cassenverein" cover became famous because it was the first of the OSS items to be identified as a forgery by the German postal authorities. Over a dozen raids took place with the Germans faithfully recovering the fake mailbags and restoring them to the Reichpost. Then, at the conclusion of the 16 Match 1945 raid on a train near St. Poelten, the fake mail to citizens in the cologne area was being processed when a sharp-eyed postal clerk noticed that the return address on the envelopes was "Wiener Giro-und Cassenverein." The correct spelling of the final word should have read "Kassenverein." For the want of a "K" the game was lost. The Nazis became suspicious, the envelopes were opened and the propaganda placed inside was discovered.
Corey Ford (Little Brown, Boston, 1970) mentioned this campaign briefly in the book Donovan of the OSS. He mentions the attack on railways and marshaling yards; the dropped mail bags, and concludes with the statement, "There is no evidence that this device was ever detected." He is wrong, since as we have shown, on at least one occasion the bags were detected and identified.
This was not the only such Allied spelling error. The British were guilty too. In her dissertation, Smoke and Mirrors: the Role of British Clandestine Psychological Warfare in Breaking the German Will to Resist, 1944-1945, Jessica Simpson says that Operation Rosebush was undertaken in July 1941. The operation involved the counterfeiting and dissemination by air of forged German clothes ration cards for men. However, the operation failed when the rubber stamp on those cards intended for the city of Hamburg misspelled Hansastadt as Hanfastadt. Apparently, German is difficult language.
Are you Jeuish?...Juwesh?...Whatever?
During WWII Heinrich Himmler's Schutzstaffel (SS) ran a secret forgery shop inside Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp. A number of Jewish inmates were forced to counterfeit British currency and parody British stamps. The stamp operation was run by SS Major Bernhard Krüger, and thus called Operation Bernhard by the Allies. The Germans called it Wasserwelle for the wavy lines on the papers watermark. I first wrote in depth about this operation in the Society of Philatelic Americans Journal of February 1974.
One of the British commemorative stamps that was parodied by the inmates was the green one-half penny stamp of 1935. This stamp was issued to honor the silver jubilee of the rule of King George V. The stamp is inscribed in large capitals "SILVER JUBILEE" above and "½ HALFPENNY ½" at the bottom. The face in profile of the British King is illustrated in the center. In the left area the King's crown is depicted under the date "1910." This was the year when King George assumed his throne. To the right of the portrait the date "1935" marks the silver jubilee of his rule. A laurel wreath is seen under the figure.
In the German propaganda parody the inscription was altered to "THIS WAR IS A" at the top and "JEWSH WAR" at the bottom. The years were replaced by "1939" and "1944." A hammer and sickle emblem with Soviet star replaced the laurel wreath, and the Star of David topped the crown. The Russian dictator Josef Stalin is depicted in the center instead of the British King. The inscription above is flanked with two Jewish stars, the term "JEWSH WAR" with a small hammer and sickle emblem at left and right.
The stamp is an excellent NAZI propaganda production. It implies that the British are fighting the war for the Jews and the Communists and is full of small symbols of Communism and Jewry. The visual image and message are quite striking. There is one problem however, the spelling of the word "Jewish." The forgers left out the "I."
There was some talk after the war that this might have been a secret plan by the Jewish forgers to sabotage the design and embarrass the Nazis. I spoke to Bernhard Krüger on several occasions and he told me that it was just "a terrible printing error. The word 'Jewish' had been translated properly but the engraver omitted the letter 'I.' The mistake was spotted and there was an attempt to halt production. However, the SS hierarchy decided to push on with the project. They were just propaganda stamps of no importance so who cared if there was an error on them?"
In fact, at any hint of sabotage on the part of the Jewish prisoners the SS would have immediately killed the inmates suspected of the treasonous action. That was made clear to them constantly and as a result they were always on their best behavior.
About one million copies of the defective stamps were printed. They are often offered for sale and always popular among collectors. Be warned, excellent forgeries abound and these days they are regularly offered to unsuspecting buyers on philatelic auction sites.
Women don't Sweat, They "perspire"
Good use of the enemy's language is key in propaganda. A misspelled word means disaster as the leaflet becomes not a destroyer of morale, but instead the butt of jokes, and with it the producer become a laughing stock with no credibility. A good example is German leaflet AW-25. This small crudely printed black and white leaflet depicts a beautiful woman on the telephone and the text, "Will you ever hear her sweat voice again?" The back depicts dead Allied soldiers and the text, "Life is short - Death is quicker!" The leaflet was dropped by the Germans on Allied troops around the Normandy beachhead in 1944. It was surely meant to make the soldier think of his beloved wife at home, but instead the word "sweat" in place of "sweet" made the leaflet valueless and the German producers appear to be stupid.
Wow Look at her. Im Not Fighting Anymore!
We would be remiss if we did not mention the use of sexual images on leaflets. American policy was generally against such images, but the Axis powers of Germany and Japan used them quite often. The theory is that a lonesome GI thousands of miles from home will find the propaganda leaflet showing a naked female, think of his wife or girlfriend, lose the will to fight, and be virtually worthless as a soldier. In reality, the result was quite different. Many troops were bored as they waited for the next battle or sat behind the lines in reserve. The sudden appearance of thousands of photographs or drawings of naked women falling from the sky was quite exciting. The Germans often dropped the leaflets in numbered sets of six. As the leaflets fell or lay scattered on the ground, the soldiers would go from leaflet to leaflet, trying to complete the sets. If a buddy had a leaflet that was needed, a trade would be made, not unlike the old bubblegum or trading cards. In some cases there were reports of cigarettes and other commodities traded for the sex leaflets. The result seems to be that instead of lowering the morale of the troops, the use of sexual leaflets actually raises the morale.
Another problem occurs when sexual leaflets are disseminated on a nation with parochial views toward sex in general. The United States prepared leaflets for both North Vietnam and North Korea showing young ladies in bathing suits. These leaflets were a total failure. The very prudish communists assumed that the women were either prostitutes or foreigners. No proper Vietnamese or Korean woman would be seen in such an outfit. Once again, a nice idea that was a total failure.
Sometimes sex could be used as a ploy. An old German SS panzer officer once told me that while on the Russian front his men suddenly began to yell and gesture. Across an open field a number of naked Russian women were walking through the forest. The Germans all moved to an area where they could get a better look with binoculars. As soon as they were concentrated, Russian artillery opened up, killing many of them. I suppose in this case the German mistake was reacting to the sexual propaganda.
Marilyn Longmuir tells of another WWII problem of cultural differences in The Money Trail: Burmese Currencies in Crisis, 1937-1947,
Northern IllinoisPress, 2002.
The author states that in March 1942, British Special Operations Executive (SOE) operative Mr. J.A.T. Galvin proposed the counterfeiting of Japanese invasion money (JIM) for
. It was believed that like most Europeans, the recipients would be suspicious if the banknotes were not aged and used. Thus, the SOE artificially aged their forged Burmese JIM by soaking them in weak tea, and then folding and crinkling them and rubbing dirt on them. The British then discovered that the Burmese favored crisp, clean notes. Once they realized their error they stopped the artificial aging and sent mint, crisp counterfeit notes to Burma . Burma
Even Your Best Friends Won't Tell You
This WWII mistake is a little different. The error was not on the part of the producers of the propaganda, but on the part of a friendly intelligence agency that was completely fooled by it.
In an attempt to drive a wedge between the leaders of the Nazi Party, the British put a plan called "Himmler for President" into motion. The idea was to pass rumors that Heinrich Himmler was jealous of Adolf Hitler's position and working behind the scenes to replace the German leader.
As part of the plan, a fake German postage stamp was printed that had Himmler's face in place of that of Hitler. The stamp was quietly distributed through
Europeby British agents, with the hope that philatelists would see it and the story would break big in the newspapers. Sefton Delmer, the British spy chief, told me:
I was in charge of the unit that did the counterfeiting. The rumor that went along with the stamp was that Himmler in his megalomania was preparing for the time when he would succeed Hitler either by coup, Allied action, or Hitler's death, and that in his preparations he had gone so far as to have stamps designed and printed with his image.
The most impressive thing about this philatelic side of our wartime work was the utter failure of philatelists to observe these forgeries even when they were deliberately posted to them. In the end our agents had to take them to stamp dealers to get publicity for them.
So, the plan was a complete failure. Nobody in
Germanyor the rest of Europebelieved the Himmler story.
Well, not quite. The British did fool one person. The American Office of Strategic Services Official Dispatch dated 10 June 1944 from Allan Dulles in Berne to Director Donovan in
says in part: Washington
Some months ago I reported briefly about the mysterious Himmler stamp, which has turned up here in
. Since then, I have had someone investigate some stamp dealers in regard to the situation with this stamp and the mystery deepens. Switzerland
The Stamp Collector's Journal, published here in December, 1943, had a brief article with regard to this stamp, with a facsimile and a full description. The next issue printed in 1944 had a further article about the stamp and stated that it was not an official issue of the German Post Office. As far as I can tell, pressure was brought to bear on the editors of this stamp journal by the German authorities to play the matter down.
It may have been a trick pulled by some of Himmler's enemies to make trouble for him, or it may be that some enthusiast in the Ministry of the Interior thought that it might be nice to honor Himmler in this way, possibly in connection with some charitable drive. In any event, the mystery of the stamp has not been cleared up.
This is an interesting case where the British did not tell their own ally about a propaganda campaign and as a result time, money, and manpower was spent investigating a bogus anti-Hitler scheme within
. Readers who would like to learn more about this black operation should see my article, "A Philatelic View of Heinrich Himmler," The Germany
American Philatelist,February, 1970.
How to Make sure that a PSYOP Campaign Fails
A constant problem through all the wars of the last century has been trying to convince friendly troops that it is worthwhile to talk to enemy troops and change their attitudes. We read descriptions of
U.S.Marines refusing to take Japanese prisoners during WWII, or aerial gunships following loudspeaker aircraft in to fire on any enemy who seems recalcitrant or fires at the propaganda aircraft. A perfect example of such an act us found in War by Stealth: Australians and the Allied Intelligence Bureau, Alan Powell, Vietnam Press, 1996. One of the Australian pilots drops leaflets from his fighter, and then returns to wreak havoc: Melbourne University
I fly along the tracks I know the Japs are using and drop leaflets on the way down. Then when I finish the run and come back, find the Japs picking up the leaflets, and shoot them up.
This is probably not as uncommon as one might think, and certainly did nothing to help the Allies convince the Japanese that their cause was lost and to give up.
There are numerous other blunders that occurred during the Second World War. Some were written, some were broadcast. One of the more notable radio errors was mentioned in U. S. Psychological Operations in Vietnam, a monograph on national security affairs written by Harry D. Latimer, Brown University, September, 1973. He says:
Perhaps the most famous blooper was an Office of War Information broadcast referring to Italys King Victor Emmanuel as "the moronic little king" and Marshall Badoglio as a "high ranking Fascist" just at the time the Allies were trying to persuade the Italian Government of Badoglio to proclaim an armistice. President Roosevelt himself repudiated and denounced the OWI broadcast. In this instance there had been a sudden change in Allied policy at the highest level, but OWI was not informed and had received no new instructions.
You Are Forsaken
Another leaflet operation might be called more an embarrassment than a mistake. The story is told in
Alaskas Hidden Wars, Otis Hays, Jr., Universityof Alaska Press, , 2004. The Japanese had occupied the Fairbanks of Kiska on 6 June 1942 as a diversion for their plan for the battle of Midway. The Aleutian Island wanted it back. The Americans prepared an anti-Morale leaflet depicting the North Pacific between United States Alaskaand Japanwith the highlighted. The leaflet text said: islandof Kiska
You have been forsaken. There is no hope of reinforcement.
During early August 1943, American bombers flew over Kiska and dropped hundreds of thousands of these leaflets. On 17 August 1943, an invasion force consisting of 34,426 Allied troops, including elements of the 7th Infantry Division, 4th Infantry Regiment, 87th Mountain Combat team, 5,300 Canadians, 95 ships (including three battleships and a heavy cruiser), and 168 aircraft landed on Kiska, only to find the island completely abandoned. When the Allied forces hit the beaches with bugles blaring they discovered that the Japanese troops had been safely evacuated on 28 July. While the Japanese were gone before the invasion of Kiska was launched, Allied casualties during the operation nevertheless numbered 313. All of these casualties were the result of friendly fire, booby traps set out by the Japanese, disease, or frostbite.
Only three or four mongrel dogs were left behind by the Japanese. This led a U.S. pilot to remark:
We dropped a hundred thousand propaganda leaflets on Kiska. But those dogs couldnt read.
This embarrassment led to a song called The Song of Kiska. Some of the lyrics are:
One hundred thousand men at muster,
Admirals, generals adding luster;
Two hundred planes, as many ships-
All were bound for Kiskas Nips.
Dog Day Plus one and two and three,
Found three more in captivity;
But as for Japs we couldnt say-
Wed seen one either night or day.
Dont Talk Soldier!
There is an interesting leaflet that might be from the aftermath of this battle. It claims to tell American soldiers not to mention anything about Alaska for safety and security reasons, but could it be because the planners were so embarrassed about invading a deserted land they wanted to hush it up? This has happened more than once, There is a Desert Storm leaflet where the text on an Army booklet depicting it incorrectly states that the PSYOP people did not know that Arabic went from right to left. It was an embarrassing and hopefully incorrect admission. When that caption was discovered, the offending section was blacked out on all the books.
Perhaps we should end this look at WWII with some interesting PSYOP stories from the
Army Air Force 308th Bomb Wing. They appear in a letter dated 16 July 1945. The writer says: U.S.
During one mission run out of
by B-24s, a bundle of leaflets was dropped from a plane without cutting the string. This bundle passed through the wind shield of a lower plane and the co-pilot was cut by the breaking glass. It did nothing to help the war effort or defeat the Japs, but it got the co-pilot a Purple Heart. Darwin
Another time a Nip jumped on the tail of a B-25. The gunner threw out a bundle of leaflets, and the Jap, fearing for the safety of his engine pulled away.
During a take off at Lingayen a bundle dropped out of the hatch and covered the field with leaflets. The tower immediately called to let us know that the air field was not a wastebasket. Sometimes planes in the forward element drop leaflets which blow back over the remainder of the aircraft. The crews said it was like flying through a snow storm.
Thats a Chinaman?
During the Korean War the United States prepared a number of leaflets that failed due to the inability of the target audience to understand the visual image. They are mentioned in A Psychological Warfare Casebook, Daughterty and Janowitz, The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD, 1958.
In early 1951 the Psychological Warfare Detachment of the Eighth U.S. Army prepared a leaflet coded 8028. It depicted an F-80 Shooting Star and a tank attacking an individual who flees in terror. The text is, Death in many forms awaits you on this foreign soil. The soldier has no form of identification, either rank or unit. He wears no headgear. About the only thing that might make an American believe that he is Chinese is that he wears a padded jacket of the type some Chinese wore during the war. The problem is that the Chinese had not a clue who this person was. When eight Chinese prisoners of war were questioned about the image on the leaflet (without text) not one believed that he was Chinese. One actually thought that he represented an American soldier. If you intend to show a person from another culture, make sure that you use identifiers that are recognizable within that culture.
Whos the Funny Looking Guy at Dinner?
The same problem occurred on Korean War leaflet 7115, printed by the 1st Radio Broadcast and Leaflet Group in December 1951. This leaflet depicted a Chinese family of eight individuals sitting around a food-laden table that was not unlike an American Thanksgiving dinner. The bones show through one of the diners, so an American might assume that he is a ghost. The text is on the front is, Your place will be empty. Text on the back is, Because Communists officials continue to stall at the Armistice talks YOURS WILL BE THE EMPTY PLACE AT YOUR FAMILYS NEW YEAR REUNION. Because Communist leaders compel you to continue this hopeless war IN THE HEARTS OF YOUR FAMILY THERE IS GREAT EMPTINESS.
This leaflet confused the Chinese. First of all, the seating arrangement of the people was all wrong. There were children at the table instead of respected elders and family members. The children would have eaten earlier. The table was full of food where a proper family would remove the dishes from each course before bringing new dishes. If the family was so rich that they could eat in a fashion that had not been seen since the late 1930s, why would a son be in the military? Who is the person with the bones showing through? This is not a traditional way to show a ghost in China (or the United States for that matter). This is another case where the American psywarriors knew exactly what they wanted to say, but the illustration completely confused the target audience. The Chinese did not understand the wealth depicted on the leaflet and truly believed that the family of a soldier would be poor. The leaflet served no military purpose and failed in its attempt to demoralize the Chinese Army. The Americans were thinking Thanksgiving dinner, and the Chinese had no clue.
The mistake of thinking that what is meaningful to an American soldier would also be meaningful to a Korean soldier is pointed out by USAF Major Norman D. Vaughn in My Life of Adventure, Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA, 1995. We have all read of Chinese farmers killing female children and wanting to raise only boys that could grow strong and help with the farm work. Apparently some Koreans had the same attitude. Vaughn tells of a particular Korean War leaflet deigned in
Some time later I was transferred to our headquarters in
. Thats where we wrote, illustrated and printed the larger, more important leaflets My staff of three writers and four artists and I functioned like an advertising agency, creating new themes and ideas. In the cellars of the U.S.A.F. Headquarters in Tokyo , eight North Korean prisoners of war had volunteered to read and respond to our leaflets. Four were officers, four were enlisted men. The enlisted men reviewed leaflets in one room, the officers in another. Tokyo
We had pictured a handsome, smiling soldier, wearing a distinctive UN uniform. He was on one knee and had picked up a little girls doll. He was putting the arm back on the doll while a little girl standing next to him is crying. The picture was intended to show that UN soldiers were human, liked children, and were willing to help. I thought it was an excellent message. I hoped the communist soldiers would reason, If they treat kids this way, they will treat me the same way. I had better surrender if I want to stay alive.
When we showed this leaflet to the enlisted men, the first one snorted, letting us know it was awful. Another pretended to spit on the floor, which was his way of showing disapproval. The other two nodded in agreement. The officers had the same response. Through an interpreter, we asked, Why is this so terrible? Their answer was, To hell with little girls. We only care for boys. And our girls dont have baby dolls anyway. The next day we presented revised artwork. The child was now a crying boy. The doll had become a cart, and the soldier was fixing a wheel that had come off. All the test prisoners smiled their approval. It was a good leaflet.
This is one interesting anecdote about leaflets from the Korean War that although not an error in printing certainly might be considered an error in judgment. William E. Daugherty tells in the declassified technical memorandum Evaluation and Analysis of Leaflet Program in the Korean Campaign June December 1950 of a headquarters officer so diligent in seeing that no papers fell into the hands of the Communists that he destroyed the propaganda leaflets printed for them to read:
There is one known occasion of the destruction of at least one-quarter million leaflets at
, as the result of the forced evacuation of that city. An officer on the general staff at Eighth Army ordered enlisted personnel to dump the entire supply of propaganda leaflets on hand at Eighth Army Headquarters into a latrine, instead of leaving them for the Chinese and Koreans to read. Pyongyang
The propagandist has to be very careful that his methods only influence the enemy, and not terrify friendly forces. Two cases come to mind. During the Korean War one enterprising PSYOP specialist assigned to the 25th Infantry Division went to the
Zoo where he recorded growling lions and tigers at feeding time. One evening when he was feeling bored, he played the tape at full volume. Not only did the Communist troops directly in front of the loudspeakers start to run toward their rear, but the South Korean troops along the friendly line took off running too. The innovative psywarrior soon found himself attached to the 45th Infantry Division. Seoul
A decade later during the Vietnam War American PSYOP tapes featured funeral dirges and the sound of wailing ghosts. This worked quite well on the enemy but also terrified the Friendly ARVN forces. As a result, a directive ordered that the tapes not be played within earshot of friendly forces.
A 1967 Army paper entitled Vietnamese Superstitions explains the peril:
The first step in the manipulation of a superstition as an enemy vulnerability is its exact identification and detailed definition of it spread and intensity among the target audience. The second step is to insure friendly control of the stimuli and the capability to create a situation that will trigger the desired superstitious behavior. Both conditions must be met if the PSYOP effort will not yield the desired results; it might even backfire!
The PSYOP specialist also has to be sure that he has the confidence of his own soldiers. Sometimes they may feel that he is not working in their best interests. In the last stages of the Korean War the Chinese put a bounty of ten thousand dollars in gold for captured loudspeaker personnel and threatened to hang them if captured. The loudspeaker teams also drew artillery fire and were attacked with small arms fire by Communist scouts about one-third of the time that they were out in front of friendly troops. The infantry took the situation in their own hands on several occasions and cut the wires from the generators to the loudspeakers or filled the loudspeakers with snow. The American loudspeaker teams did have a secret weapon to get them out of a jam when their broadcasts stirred up a hornets nest. Charles H. Briscoe tells us about the weapon in Volunteering for Combat: Loudspeaker Psywar in
, Veritas, volume 1, number 1. Korea
For some reason, the Americans and Chinese loved listening to Doris Day. When our efforts had really stirred them up, resulting in artillery and mortar barrages and machine gun fire being directed at us, and in turn from the American lines, we quickly switched to
Doristo quiet things down Only Doris Day worked.
As long as we are on the Korean peninsula we should mention an interesting error that occurred during the Cold War period when leaflets were being dropped by the Americans from far out at sea under the codename Operation Jilli. Specialist Fifth Class (SP5) Dennis Kaliser, a lithographic plate maker with the 15th PSYOP Detachment of the 7th PSYOP Group told me that about 1966 none of the Americans could read Korean in the printing branch, and as a result, close to one million of the leaflets were printed backwards. He adds:
There never was any linguists attached to the printing branch. There were many Koreans among the leaflet designers and probably in the 7th PSYOP Group near the graphics branch (in the Green Compound) about a mile from the printing plant. The problem was one of communication breakdown in the production process. I can only surmise that somebody, somewhere checked the first copies of any press-sheet before we printed too many with mistakes.
Cartoon depicting leaflet dissemination mistake over Korea
Ironically, the letters ZD on the leaflet stand for Zero Defects
Lieutenant Colonel Dave Underhill was assigned to the 7th PSYOP Group on
Okinawaduring Operation Jilli. He had some targeting problems with his young navigators:
There was a rush to train Navigators to plan the missions. I had 120 hours of instructional material. They got six hours a day for five days (30 hours).
They were smart, but on their very first mission, I got a call from Korea Detachment saying the people along the DMZ were up to their butt in our leaflets. I asked for their winds aloft report in plotting the mission. Where the DMZ takes a rather sharp turn to the Southwest when traveling West, I calculated there would be 1,100,000 leaflets in
. So much for smart navigators. They failed to consider the natural dispersion in still air effect. From 25,000 feet, it is substantial. You need to add 6,250 feet on both sides of the flight path when flying into the wind. They were away from the DMZ and still dropping leaflets over a mile wide into the South Korean side. South Korea
That was still better than our jets did that dropped the old
Leaflet Bomb. Army crews loaded the bombs, packed, not rolled. They destroyed the known drift and dispersion characteristics. When they moved in close and released their Monroe Bombs, they reported leaflets on target. I think it was Monroe . I asked for a winds aloft report. I ran the plot. Not only did they miss the target, they even missed the Hanoi Red RiverDelta with most of the leaflets. They ended up in Southern China. A leaflet bomb results in a long stretch of leaflets along the net drift vector.
Dropping leaflets on the enemy instead of our troops has been a problem in every war. There are many stories of German-language leaflets found in the fields and on the cottages of British farmers. An interesting story is told by Colonel Kenneth K. Hansen in Psywar in
. It seems that General Ridgway, Commander of the Eighth Army in Korea Koreasent a message to Major General James Cassels the commander of the British CommonwealthDivision:
Your leafleting plane has been over my division this morning and dropped many thousands of leaflets. We have read them. I am ready to surrender with my division whenever you send forward a representative.
Staff Sergeant Steve Jones of the 15th Physiological Training Flight, Kadena AFB, Okinawa, flew support for the 90th Special Operations Squadron (later renamed 1st Special Operations Squadron ) and the 374 Tactical Airlift Wing from 13 March 1972 to 9 January 1973. He talks about similar problems and ways that the leaflet kickers amused themselves during long propaganda flights.
One time when we were flying out of Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Base we were assigned to drop leaflets over
. During the drop the wind changed drastically and instead of Laos Laos, we covered our own base and the city of . It looked like a snow storm as we landed. The Thai government didnt approve of propaganda so we kept a very low profile that day while the rest of the base was assigned the duty of picking up the leaflets and hauling them away. Nakhon Phanom
Sometimes on a very boring drop some of the kickers would intentionally forget to hook the static line and attempt to drop the loaded boxes on selected targets. It was especially fun trying to hit fishing boats in the harbors because we could see the splash caused by the boxes when they hit. We never did hit a boat, but we came close a few times!
On the subject of
Okinawathere were some leafleting problems there during WWII. The most interesting is told by naval pilot GarlandE. Buddy Bellwho flew a scout plane off the cruiser USS . He says: Tuscaloosa
My most vivid memory occurred during a spotting mission over
Okinawawhen I flew into thousands of falling propaganda leaflets dropped by one of our planes. The airplane appeared to be running into a snow storm. Hundreds of the leaflets caught on the wings and the cockpit canopy. Cracking the canopy, I was able to grab one before they all blew off. The leaflet was the Ryukyu Shuho [Ryukyu Weekly] or OkinawaWeekly.
A similar problem happened to an American Army helicopter pilot during the Vietnam War. He told his story to Robert Fulton, the Executive Officer of the Regional Service Center in Manila where leaflets were printed.
I was on an assault mission, flying Vietnamese Army troops low over the countryside and just a few minutes from coming in hot at the landing zone. It was a tense moment. Suddenly, all I could see was white. Being from a northern state, my instant reaction was to call out an immediate abort mission to the other pilots while shouting into the microphone, Were in a snow storm Were in a major white out! I instantly banked up and away, and was suddenly in clear blue sky. Looking around, I realized we had just been hit with a large drop of propaganda leaflets. The worst part was when I got back to his base, and everyone I passed shouted at me: Were in a white out. Were in a white out! Its snowing! Its snowing!
Similar cases occurred during the Cold War when Radio Free Europe and the Free Europe Press sent anti-Soviet propaganda leaflets by balloon to Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. Unfortunately, many of these leaflets ended up in Greece and Turkey.
In 2012, Greek researcher Thanassis Vembos wrote an article entitled Cold War Balloons and the Greek UFO Wave of 1954. He points out that some of the Greek UFO sightings seem to line up with balloon launchings and it is possible that they are one and the same. He mentions several cases:
On 2 October 1954, at Agios Georgios village, on Pilion mountain, 50 year-old Elias Voyagis was returning home from his fields around 7 p.m. Half a kilometer from the village he looked at the sky and noticed a huge, bright object. It was a conglomeration of four extremely bright circles, like luminous spots constituting a longish thing moving with airplane speed. He described it like a long moving balloon target for anti-aircraft guns.
Interestingly, several hours before the Pilion sighting, a real balloon created a big fuss in Rhodes Island, Dodecanese. At 3:15 a.m. on 2 October, a small white balloon coming from northwest crashed on a fence at Kremasti town and blew off. In a little carton hanging below the balloon, leaflets in Hungarian were found. To my knowledge this was the first documented account of a stray balloon of Operation VETO that ended up on Greek soil. Significantly the operation had commenced just the previous day!
Alan Michie adds in Voices through the Iron Curtain: The Radio Free Europe Story, Dodd and Mead, NY, 1963:
Reports began to come in of these long-range balloons coming down as far afield as central Turkey
Sig Mickelson adds more about balloons gone astray in America's Other Voice: The Story of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, Praeger, New York, 1983.
Balloons were discovered as far away from West Germany as Turkey. At least one was caught in the air currents that carried it to Scotland, prompting an irate Scottish farmer to write angry letters to British newspapers condemning the operation.
An Egyptian Propaganda leaflet in the form of a postage stamp showed a terrified Jamal Abdul Nasser. The text is:
Nasser said: "I am ready to fight until the last drop of blood for the freedom of
and the Egyptian people"- 1 November 1956 Egypt
SuezCrisis was a military attack on Egyptby Britain, Franceand beginning on 29 October 1956. The attack followed Israel Egypt's decision of 26 July 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal after the withdrawal of an offer by Britainand the United Statesto fund the building of the Dam. Prior to the operation, Britain deliberately neglected to take counsel with the Americans, trusting instead that Nasser's engagement with communist states would persuade the Americans to accept British and French actions if they were presented as a fait accompli. This proved to be a fatal miscalculation. Although the attacking nations were winning in the field, the Aswan United States, fearing a public relations fiasco, forced a cease-fire on Britain, Israel, and . The France demanded that the invasion stop and sponsored resolutions in the U.N. Security Council calling for a cease-fire. There were a limited number of propaganda leaflets dropped on the Egyptians, but the mistake in this case involved their leaflet bombs. U.S.
Paul Lashmar and James Oliver say in
Britains Secret Propaganda War 1948-1977, Sutton Publishing, , 1998: UK
The psychwar operations were run by Lieutenant Colonel Bernard Fergusson; a man with no previous experience in psychological warfare The Royal Air Force flew operations to drop propaganda leaflets on the Egyptian population. The problem was that the leaflet bombs were designed to explode at 1000 feet using an altitude fuse, and scatter paper over a wide area. However, because of barometric differences in
, the bombs exploded at just six feet causing death or injury to any Egyptian in the vicinity. Egypt
From 1963 to 1967 the British Army fought Communist terrorists in
. During that time they produced many propaganda leaflets including a great number offering rewards for weapons. Two of them were printed with the wrong text, offering rewards for a weapon that was not pictured on the leaflet. It is possible that the person that prepared the text made the mistake, but it is more likely that the printer, not reading Arabic, simply reversed the text on each leaflet. Aden
The uncoded leaflet above depicts a bazooka rocket and the Arabic text:
This is a hand grenade
Inform the security services if you find one and receive 25 dinars.
The uncoded leaflet above depicts a single British Mills 36 hand grenade and the incorrect Arabic text:
This is ammunition for the bazooka
If you see this anywhere, inform the security services.
You will receive 50 dinars.
Nguyen Why are They Playing Cards?
During the Vietnam War, many American troops dropped the ace of spades on the bodies of dead Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops in the belief that it terrified the enemy.
The ace of spades was also featured in movies about the Vietnam War such as Apocalypse Now. The symbol is also depicted on various unit crests, special operations patches, collar insignia, and on flags and painted vignettes on military aircraft and gun trucks. This was a psychological warfare campaign that came from the troops, not headquarters, G-2 (Intelligence) or the Psychological Operations experts at Battalion and Group. American troops just loved them. Were the Vietnamese really terrified by the ace of spades? It appears not.
Robert W. Chandler says in War of Ideas: The U.S. Propaganda Campaign in Vietnam, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 1981, in a section entitled "Major Psychological Appeals and Themes," under "Fear":
But not all such approaches were effective. One major misassumption occurred about 1966 when U.S. soldiers scattered fear-appeal leaflets with the ace of spades as an omen of death. In some cases actual playing cards were left along trails in Communist-controlled territory (to supplement the campaign American troops wrote to playing card manufacturers requesting numerous aces of spades to supplement the campaign). A subsequent review and evaluation by the United States Information Agency revealed, however, that the ace of spades was not included in the Vietnamese deck of cards. Thus, except for a few Montagnard hill tribesmen, they were unfamiliar with its meaning as a death omen. Despite these finding and a Joint United States Public Affairs Office policy directive prohibiting the aces of spades practice, American soldiers began using the technique again in 1971. This repeated error was probably symptomatic of trying to maintain continuity and high-quality psychological operations with military persons being shuffled into and out of the country on one-year tours of duty.
So, although thousands of aces of spades were sent to Vietnam and many were placed on the bodies of the dead Viet Cong, it appears that the enemy had no idea what the cards represented.
Hes a Martyr No he Isnt
The North Vietnamese and Viet Cong sometimes made mistakes in their propaganda campaign. In one case a young Viet Cong guerrilla named Nguyen Van Be was on a mission with his comrades in May 1966. They were attacked and Nguyen Be was captured. The American and Vietnamese troops demanded that he instruct them on the workings of an unknown explosive mine. He allegedly did so. According to the Lao Dong (Communist) Party sources, he picked up the mine high over his head, and shouted, "Long live the National Front for Liberation. Down with American Imperialists." He then smashed the mine against an armored vehicle, killing himself and dozens of American and Vietnamese officers and soldiers.
For six months, the Communists bragged of his heroics in prose and song. Young men were urged to emulate the fallen hero. Be had been a model guerrilla. He had joined the Peoples Youth League at an early age and later became a volunteer in the Liberation Army. There were poems, booklets, plays and radio broadcasts telling of Bes death and sacrifice. The communists in the North even wrote an opera for Be. In addition, two statues were erected in his honor. The Viet Cong awarded him the posthumous title of "Indomitable Loyalty and Magnificent Bravery."
The problem was, Nguyen Be had not martyred himself, but instead had surrendered. He was alive and well in a Vietnamese prison camp. He agreed to cooperate with the Government of Vietnam and told the true story of his capture in a 13 March 1967 interview. He said that the battle lasted just a few minutes and he had never fired a shot. Instead, he dove into a canal in an attempt to escape, but was captured when a Vietnamese soldier grabbed him by the hair.
The Joint United States Public Affairs Office (JUSPAO) produced leaflet 1775 in February 1967. The front of the leaflet depicts Nguyen Van Be holding a newspaper with his picture on the first page. The text is "The Late Hero Nguyen Van Be reads about his own death." The back is all text, "A very strange story indeed. According to the Communists, Nguyen Van Be died a glorious death in the service of the cause. Supposedly, after the South Vietnamese Army forces captured him he detonated a mine killing himself and 69 American and Vietnamese Government troops. Glowing accounts of his death were printed in communist newspapers and read over Radio Hanoi and Liberation Radio. Many poems and songs were written about his exploits. A statue was even built in his honor. However, as can be plainly seen, Be is very much alive. He is shown reading about his own death in the Hanoi newspaper Tien-phong. The Communists say he chose a hero's death. Be says that he never fired a shot and did not even think about exploding a mine."
This should have been a defeat for the enemy, but they simply denied that Be was alive and said that it was all an American plot. This is a case where the enemy made a major propaganda mistake, but never had to pay for it. The people believed the North Vietnamese Communist Party more than they believed the Americans.
Don Rochlen Flying Be to his Home Village
Monta L. Osborne was the Chief of Field Development Division in the Joint United States Public Affairs Office (JUSPAO) in Saigon in charge of the Chieu Hoi (Open Arms) program during the Vietnam War. His letters home recall the campaign:
One of my assistants, Chief of Special Projects Don Rochlen, found that Nguyen Van Bes family (father, mother, brothers and sisters) were living in an area where they could be captured by the Viet Cong, in retaliation for Bes anti-Hanoi propaganda. Don proposed that he visit the contested area in which they were living, and with the help of a U.S. Army company enter the area and remove the family from their danger. We were able to gain approval for this project.
Does Anyone Have a Map?
Continuing with the strange campaign of Nguyen Van Be, the Joint
Public Affairs Office had one more little fiasco in its bag of tricks. The continuing disaster is told by civilian psychological warfare advisor John R, U.S. and 6th PSYOP Battalion member Nelson Voke. JUSPAO decided to hold a big propaganda ceremony at Nguyens home village. There would be a welcoming banner over the entrance to the village, his mother would be greeted and honored, Be would be introduced to the press, the villagers would enjoy a feast, they would be entertained by music and dance, medics would offer attention, and all this would be observed and photographed by the media. Two planeloads of reporters were flown in to observe the action. They noticed that there was little excitement among the villagers. When one was asked why, he was told that it was a nice party, but Nguyen Be was not from that village, he was from the next one over. Campbell
Don North with Vietnamese cameraman Ngia near Da Nang.
Don North was hired as a staff correspondent for ABC radio and TV News following several years of freelance photojournalism in Vietnam. He was one of the members of the press that took part in the propaganda junket to the village of Kim Son on April 21, 1967. He told me:
The Army filled two Huey helicopters with about thirty journalists from Saigon, which included all three networks and the major newswires and newspapers. We were already familiar with the Nguyen Van Be story since he and his family had been presented to journalists at the so-called Five O'clock Follies; the daily news briefings.
Earlier that day four companies of the United States 9th Infantry Division had landed to secure Kim Son Village along with the Regional Forces stationed in and around the village. Loads of rice and gifts were brought in and distributed. There was a band and strolling musicians. A big attraction was a tent where Army medics extracted bad teeth and gave out medicine. A large crowd of villagers assembled around a makeshift stage and Nguyen Van Be was brought out with his family. He was greeted with puzzled stares. The Government Planning Director of PSYOP tried to generate enthusiasm for the miraculous return of Be, but nobody recognized him. Be had been taken to the right village but his own Hamlet was more than three kilometers away. One old man recognized Be as coming from another Hamlet. In rural areas like this there is little contact or transportation between Hamlets. The Army considered moving the troops to secure the correct Hamlet but it was too late in the day to mount a new operation.
I actually wrote a script about this operation and sent it back to the United States along with film. I called the story Psywar Goof. I sent background notes for Peter Jennings to read. Some of my comments were:
This is the largest assault on a Viet Cong village by the Free world press in Vietnam. The hoped for objective a major psychological warfare victory for the government
Finally the star of the show arrived with his family, but he was greeted by puzzled, unfriendly glares. Bewildered eyes flashed between Be and the villagers
Although this hamlet was held by the Allies for a few hours while the futile charade was acted out, theres little doubt where the loyalties of most of the villagers lie. Some of them are undoubtedly Viet Cong agents. Even if they had recognized Be and his family it could have meant severe Viet Cong punishment for those who admitted it
American and Vietnamese Psy-warriors go back to their maps and planning boards having lost face by the mistake of geography and lack of prior checking. In PSYWAR you can never afford to be wrong about anything. It was a bold psychological warfare move to bring Nguyen Van Be to his village, still effectively controlled by the Viet Cong. But, just like in military operations, one slip up and the battle was lost.
This was not a story that interested U.S. news agencies. They wanted war stories about American troops in combat. I don't think my story was ever broadcast in the United States on television. However the film should still be on file at ABC News in New York City.
Is that you Tran? You look different!
The Original Photograph of Tran Do
Brigadier General Tran Do, (real name Ta Ngnoc Phac), a deputy commander-in-chief of the so-called "Liberation Army of South Vietnam," (the Viet Cong Armed Forces), and a Major General in the North Vietnamese Army, as well as Alternate Member of the Central Committee of the Lao Dong Party (formerly Indochinese Communist Party). This photo is believed to have been taken in South Viet Nam. It was discovered during Operation "Junction City" in War Zone "C" (Tay Ninh Province), in March 1967.
Lieutenant General Tran Do was a hero of the Vietnamese resistance. He helped defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and later commanded all the resistance in the South against the Allies during the Vietnam War. He was one of the leaders during the Tet uprising of 1968. During that battle, the Americans believed that they killed him and prepared several propaganda leaflets to display the corpse.
Leaflet 2448 depicts the general as he looked in 1967 and his body with face shot away in 1968. The text on the leaflet is:
The Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces has completely crushed the Viet Cong's general offensive against the cities.
From 30 January 1968 to 15 February 1968, over 34,000 North Vietnamese Regulars and Viet Cong soldiers paid for their crimes. Among them was Major General Tran Do, who was killed in an action at 46th Street in Cholon in the outskirts of Saigon City.
The death of Tran Do, Tran Van Tra and Nguyen Chi Tranh proved that the Communist aggressive policy to take over South Vietnam has severely failed. It was not their inability or incompetence, but the Communist adventurous acts that cause their deaths.
Why do you still hesitate? Try to find an opportunity to return to the National Community and rejoin your families, as tens of thousands have already done.
The same images were used on leaflet 96 dropped during the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam. The text on that leaflet is:
Dear Fellow Citizens in North Vietnam
Lieutenant General Tran Do was killed at the corners of Nguyen Tieu La and Trieu Da Streets in Cholon (on the outskirts of Saigon) while he was personally commanding the general offensive against Saigon and other cities in South Vietnam during the recent TET holiday.
Together with the death of General Tran Do, from 30 January to 29 February 1968, over 42,000 North Vietnamese regulars and Viet Cong were killed, 7,000 others captured, and over 12,000 pieces of assorted weapons seized.
Fellow citizens: He who sows the wind reaps the tempest! The deaths of Generals Nhuyen Chi Tranh and Tran Do and the recent heavy casualties on the Communists constituted a blow of the Republic of Vietnam people and Army, and revealed the complete failure of the Communist plot to take over South Vietnam.
Fellow citizens, be determined to thwart all the attempts of the North Vietnamese Communists who aim to send poor children to die foolishly in South Vietnam.
Under the two photos are the captions:
Photograph of Lieutenant General Tran Do taken last year. The photograph was captured in February 1967 in South Vietnam.
The body of Lieutenant General Tran Do after the battle in Cholon during the attack of the Viet Cong on the occasion of Tet.
1993 Painting of General Tran Do on a piece of Bark by Marcelino Truong
General Tran Do in in Study in Hanoi in 1993
There was a problem. General Tran Do was still alive. We dont know if this was a clever disinformation ploy with fake documents placed on a body since the Phoenix Program had put a bounty on his head, or simply a terrible mistake by the Americans who wanted to believe that they had killed their most dangerous enemy. At any rate, the old general lived on well after the war. Curiously, in his old age he became quite democratic and an enemy of the people. In January 1998, he wrote a letter to the Vietnamese Communist Party asking it to reform and implement democracy for all the people of the nation. He quoted Ho Chi Minh in his letter:
An independence without freedom and happiness is a meaningless one. Freedom and happiness require democracy!
In 1998, General Tran Do revealed he has been transformed from an idealistic youth fired by revolutionary zeal to a disillusioned old man, shocked by what he saw as a government worse than its former colonial state. Some of his comments were:
We have a huge public security machine equipped with more modern and variegated instruments of terrorism than the security forces of older regimes could ever dream of. All the things that we held in contempt, cursed out and opposed, we now repeat, but at a more perfect level, a level which is made more and more sophisticated.
On 15 November 2000, The Communist Party retired the old general who was once the head of the Party's ideology and culture Department. He was expelled from the party in January 1999 for advocating that it give up its monopoly on power. On 9 August 2002, 78-year-old Tran Do died after more than a month in a hospital.
Perhaps it would have been better for Tran Do if he had died in the Tet uprising of 1968. He would have died a happy revolutionary without disillusionment or questions about the Communist regime.
Will I be Rich or Poor?
The use of an absolutely accurate translation of a propaganda message is essential. The United States discovered this in Vietnam. A one-dong propaganda banknote was prepared to attack the inflation of the money of the Democratic Republic of North Vietnam. PSYOP specialists called these notes "The inflation series." The campaign was meant to convince the Vietnamese that the cost of the war would lead to the destruction of their economy. The notes were coded 4540 and 4543 (horizontal). They differed in size ever so slightly, just enough to change their drift patterns when airdropped over the enemy. The original leaflet description sheet is dated 20 July 1972. The leaflet theme is Hardship of war Survive the War inflation. The rationale is To cause the target audience to think about the adverse effects of war upon the economy. The original one-dong notes were found to have an error in the text. The error was discovered and the leaflets were printed again with the same code numbers, but now printed vertically instead of horizontally.
The intended text on the front is "Hay coi chung mot cuoc cai cach tien te nua. Cac ban co the mat tat ca tai san, cong lao mo hoi nuoc mat cua ban." ("Beware of another money reform. You may lose all your wealth, fruit of your sweat and tears.") The intended text on the back is "Dang thi vung-phi tien cua dong-bao vao mot cuoc chien-tranh tuyet-vong. Khi chien-tranh con tiep-dien thi tan-pha que-huong dong-bao. Tien dong-bao de danh se tro nen vo gia-tri." ("The Communist Party is spending your money on a hopeless war. If the war goes on, there will be nothing for you to buy. The war is destroying your country. All your savings will be worthless.")
Two errors in the Vietnamese dialect crept in one detected and corrected at an early stage, and one that somehow escaped detection for over 30 years! The first error is the omission of the word "cach" between "cai" and "tien" in the first sentence on the front of the 1 dong with horizontal code numbers. This omission renders the sentence meaningless, and was corrected in the 1-dong notes with vertical code numbers. The second error, at best ambiguous, is the presence of "vo-gia" instead of the correct "vo gia-tri" at the end of the text on the back of all the notes. "Vo-gia" translates to "priceless" instead of "worthless," thus changing the meaning of the last sentence to "All your savings will be priceless." Discussions with native Vietnamese and Vietnamese-speaking Americans reveal that, although Vietnamese would understand the intent of the message and would accept the error with mild amusement, the error would have been an embarrassment to the Americans had they known of it. Perhaps this explains why the error has not been reported earlier.
I asked an expert about these language errors and he said:
Your description of the language errors in banknote leaflet is perfectly correct, as are the translations you gave of the Vietnamese text. Frankly, as a psywar trick the banknote seems a waste of time because the target was the North Vietnamese population, which had absolutely no power to exert any public opinion pressure on the North Vietnamese communist regime.
Years later I talked to a veteran Military Assistant Command Vietnam Studies and Observations Group (MAC-V SOG) member about some of the leaflet problems that occurred during his tour in Vietnam. He could only think of two minor ones. He said that in one case the Americans produced a leaflet for the Australians that depicted burning Viet Cong. He didnt exactly recall the message but he said it was something like:
Surrender! We would much rather treat you humanely rather than the way we now treat you.
Of course, the message meant, we dont want to burn you alive with napalm. Apparently a reporter with the Australians saw the leaflet and wrote an article implying that the message proved that the Viet Cong were being treated inhumanely. Apparently the Vietnamese did not have an exact word for humanely, so another term was used that did not quite mean what the translator thought it meant.
Dead or Alive We have a Choice?
The leaflet is coded 72 and that shows that it was dropped on North Vietnam during President Nixons bombing campaign. The back is a statement by United States Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker. It has the message on the front in inch-high letters:
50 Taels of Gold
The SOG veteran told me that the problem with this message is that it did not indicate that the Americans wanted their airmen back alive. A Vietnamese reading the front of the leaflet could kill the airman and then bring him in for the reward in gold. He said that shortly after someone took a close look at this text, the message was changed to indicate that the reward was for a live airman.
An American Air-dropped Radio to
A similar error is reported to have occurred on the small black radios that were dropped over
so that the Viet Cong and the people could hear Allied propaganda broadcasts. According to an American CIA psywarrior who served in Vietnam during the war years: Vietnam
The fixed-tuned Special Operation Group peanut radios are a case in point. I had one of the black brick varieties and instantly saw that its on/off switch was marked with the Vietnamese words meaning fat and off. The first was the Vietnamese word "mo" with a ~ over the vowel, instead of the correct diacritic mark, which looks like a small ?
The wrong mark completely changed the meaning from on to fat or lard. I guess that before the radios were manufactured, the Special Operation Group guys asked the nearest South Vietnamese to write the labels. A Northern Vietnamese would not have made that stupid mistake, because Northerners spell and write more correctly.
How do these errors occur? Several American PSYOP officers in Vietnam during the war spoke of the impossibility of knowing exactly what their Vietnamese counterparts were writing on propaganda leaflets. A former Army Captain who was assigned to MACVSOG from February to August in 1964 said:
Are these people [Vietnamese nationals working with the Americans] on the other side really with us or against us? You never know that and I never knew, I dont have any idea personally other than we tried to double test so-called known people that belonged with us but they were still Vietnamese. Id write up the leaflets in English and take them over and get translated, and theyd say that means this, but did it really? I dont know and the people back in Washington will never know.
A former Army Major assigned to MACVSOG OP33, which provided staff supervision to OP39 (PSYOP) from June 1969 to June 1970, adds:
However, since neither we nor the US civilians in OP 39 were proficient in Vietnamese, the content, context, and scope of the various PSYOP products (radio broadcasts, leaflets, mail, etc.) were always suspect, in my mind. We really didnt have a way of ascertaining the quality of the product that was being put out or the nuances in a political sense.
Second Lieutenant Winston Groom of the 245th PSYOP Company in
talks about the problems that sometimes occurred when using local interpreters and translators: Vietnam
One curious situation arose when I received word from Nha Trang not to use the standard surrender tapes they had made for us in
Saigonand which we played over the bullhorn or over the loudspeaker system in the U-10 aircraft if the enemy were encountered. Somebody had discovered that the Vietnamese who translated the tapes was apparently Viet Cong, because he told the guerrillas not to surrender but to fight on. After that, we made our own tapes on a small and unreliable recorder using our own interpreters, who hopefully were not Viet Cong. I believe that after a month or so, they sent us new vetted tapes out of Saigon. It should not have taken that long. It should have taken only a few days.
One of the best examples of a translation problem is mentioned in Noel Barbers The War of the Running Dogs The Malayan Emergency 1948-1960, Weybright and Talley, NY, 1971. The author tells of a guerrilla ambush that caused the British commander to immediately fly to the nearest village where he harangued the collected inhabitants:
Youre a bunch of bastards, shouted Templer; and Rice, who spoke Chinese, listened carefully as the translator announced without emotion: His Excellency informs you that he knows that none of your mothers and fathers were married when you were born.
Templer waited, then, pointing a finger at the astonished villagers to show them who was the Tuan, added You may be bastards, but youll find out that I can be a bigger one. Missing the point of the threat completely, the translator said politely, His Excellency does admit, however, that his father was also not married to his mother.
Wrong Colors in a Viet Cong Flag
The above leaflet was produced by the U.S. Army 245th PSYOP Company in 1967. It depicts a heroic South Vietnamese soldier on horseback carrying his colors and trampling the flag of the Viet Cong on the ground. The enemy flag should have been a gold star on a field of red at the top and blue at the bottom. Instead the colors are red and green. This kind of error is not common and it is difficult to say if it was a printing error or perhaps the color changed due to atmospheric conditions like bright sun or rain.
The Americans made other minor PSYOP errors during the Vietnam War. For one, the early JUSPAO leaflets all had the printed code SP, for special project plus a number. The Americans wanted the target audience to believe that these leaflets were Vietnamese in origin. However, there was no Vietnamese equivalent for SP, so it was obvious that the Americans produced the leaflets. The letters were soon removed and only a numerical code printed on subsequent leaflets.
Another problem occurred when the printers tried to clean up the Vietnam-language leaflets of various spots and holes. One former printer says:
There was also the tricky business of opaqueing the Vietnamese negatives. When shooting a negative of the mechanical art prepared by the graphics branch, there were inevitably pinholes that must be painted out on the negative before it is used to make plates. Vietnamese has all those diacritical marks which are crucial to reading the language correctly. As none of us knew any Vietnamese, it was always a risk that we might wind up painting out one of those marks thinking it was a dust spot on the negative. I don't know if there were any consequences of this but maybe some of those leaflets read just a little different than was intended.
There were also some problems with the photography used in the printing of leaflets although I suspect these were just in selected areas and perhaps early in the war. For instance, in the Operation Report - Lessons Learned, Headquarters 4th Psychological Operations Group, period ending 31 January 1968, we find complaints about Army-issued Polaroid cameras. The report claims that 95% of the pictures utilized in leaflets in Vietnam are taken by Polaroid cameras and careful judgment must be made on the scene when the picture is taken. It recommends that several pictures be taken to insure proper pose, contrast and most important of all, that the picture tells its own story as far as possible. Six months later in the DA Army Contact Team in Vietnam Study Employment of US Army Psychological Operations Units in Vietnam, 7 June 1969, there is a complain that in many cases the Polaroid film received for use in PSYOP has passed the expiration date and the resulting picture are often of poor quality. The report goes on to say that on an experimental basis 35mm film has been used and the results have been favorable. The film has longer shelf life and is cheaper to use. Some of the problems of using 35 mm film are the inability to develop the film on the spot and insure that the picture is good and the fact that the camera must be returned to the photo shop so the exposed pictures can be cut from the film so that the rest of the film can be used.
When I read these complaints they didnt make much sense. I asked a photographer who was assigned to the 7th PSYOP Battalion in 1970 if he had been issued a Polaroid camera. He said:
I never heard of issued Polaroid cameras for anything that the Army did, except for laboratory work. We did all of our lab work (leaflet and wanted posters) with a brownie 4X5. I was issued a Nikon F W/55mm lens. I bought other lens from the PX and other sources. All after-action reports (official) were done with Nikon 35mm cameras. Pictures taken at the Interrogation Center were all 35mm cameras. Also note that some of the pictures that were on leaflets were from original pictures taken from Viet Cong bodies or from Hoi Chanhs (ralliers).
A photographer from the 10th PSYOP Battalion in 1968 agreed in part with the report:
Polaroid cameras were super slow, big unwieldy boxes, and yes, poor quality. Often, the photographer didn't follow the directions and wait the right amount of time. Color was more sienna ranging with faded greens and blues, lots better tans and Indian reds. I had a personal Minox that was even worse. Got a Miranda Sensorex 35mm after Tet and it was great. I still have it. It still works when you use an outboard meter. The 1.9 lens was rated the same as or better than Nikon at the time.
I can only assume from the differing statements this shortly after the second report much better cameras were issued to the Army photographers.
JUSPAO Field Memorandum 42, Lessons Learned from Evaluation of Allied PSYOP in Vietnam, dated 13 December 1967 mentions some Vietnam War Allied PSYOP mistakes that had occurred and should be avoided. There are a great number of recommendations and we show just a few:
A few examples of errors of this sort are shown below. They are intended to be illustrative only, not a complete list:
Items have been issued which referred to Chinese Communist weapons in terms of their caliber, rather than in terms of metric scale. Since neither the North Vietnamese nor the South Vietnamese measure anything in terms of inches or feet, caliber car readily identify the PSYOP item as originating from a source other than the Government of
Direct translations from English employ a sentence structure that is easily identified as coming from a non-Vietnamese source. Vietnamese sentence structure differs so grossly from English sentence structure that it does not require a highly perceptive expert to see that something is wrong with the text.
Leaflets have been issued which encourage the Viet Cong to rally to the
Army. A phrase such as this readily gives the impression that the message came from the Americans that the Americans are the real sovereign power in the South. U.S.
Do not include anything in a PSYOP message which may directly or indirectly lend credence to Viet Cong propaganda. For instance, numerous items have been distributed which contain statements such as The people no longer support the National Liberation Front. There is at least an implication that the Viet Cong had the support of the people
Do not distribute items which might facilitate the job of the Viet Cong political cadre. For instance, a leaflet which contains a flattering likeness of Ho Chi Minh may well end us as a useful tool of the Viet Cong cadre. The pictures can be cut out of the leaflets and serve as wallet sized photos for the Viet Cong troops to carry. The same thing could happen with a leaflet that incorporates a colorful picture of a Viet Cong flag the primary impact could be detrimental to the Allied forces.
POST PROPAGANDA WHEN YOU LEAVE, NOT WHEN YOU ARRIVE
This is not so much a mistake as an error that led to death. It is a good lesson learned for the PSYOP trooper. Staff Sergeant Leo E. Seymour was assigned to Command and Control Detachment, MACV-SOG in 1967. On 3 July 1967, Seymour was a team leader of a joint U.S and indigenous reconnaissance patrol on a combat mission in Laos. The team was called Recon Team Texas and was operating about ten miles inside Laos in Attopeu Province.
During the mission, the patrol observed a number of enemy forces moving down a trail 25 meters from their position. SSG Seymour directed an air strike on the enemy location. Following the air strike, Seymour prepared an ambush on a small secondary trail. Meanwhile, two sizeable enemy columns converged at the trail junction and noticed a PSYOP propaganda poster which had been tacked on a tree by a member of the Texas patrol. Realizing the poster had not been there before; the enemy began searching and spotted the patrol. An intense firefight followed and SSG Seymour was lost.
The lesson seems simple enough now in retrospect. Put up your posters and leave your leaflets as you exit an area, not as you enter.
This is a fairly common Vietnam leaflet depicting Viet Cong guerrillas firing at a U.S. helicopter and then receiving return fire. The text on the back is:
THE GOVERNMENT WANTS TO PROTECT PEOPLE
The Viet Cong are misusing your lands and your home for hostile activities against the people. The Government of Vietnam must destroy the Viet Cong. It will destroy them unless they see the light and come to the cause of justice of the Government of Vietnam.
Because the Viet Cong are hiding in your homes and on your land, you might be affected by the Government effort to destroy the Viet Cong. The Government of Vietnam has urged you not to collaborate with the Viet Cong. The Government of Vietnam does not want to hurt you. As best you can, stay away from the Viet Cong. Do not help them or shelter them so that you will not be hurt when the Government of Vietnam destroys the Viet Cong.
This is a very straight forward leaflet and one might ask why we show it in it an article about mistakes? An early version of this leaflet had the two images in a horizontal format and in the wrong order. In that leaflet printed in the Army Printing Office in Japan, the helicopters appear to shoot up a poor innocent Vietnamese farmers house, and then the heroic Viet Cong show up to chase away the American invaders. As you can imagine, that was not the message the United States wanted to pass on. The images are now in a vertical format and can be clearly understood by anyone, even if they are illiterate and cannot read the message on the back.
CANCEL THAT APPOINTMENT!
(C47 Equipped with Loudspeaker)
In modern psychological warfare one of the favored weapons is the loudspeaker aircraft. Many different airplanes have been tested along with many types of loudspeakers and sound equipment. The advantage of such a system is that the aircraft can fly over the enemy, generally safe from most small-arms fire, and broadcast a PSYOP message that cannot be censored by his leaders or political commissars.
The C47 Dakota equipped with a loudspeaker was first tested during the Korean War at 8,000 and 10,000 feet. It was discovered that at those heights it was impossible to hear the message on the ground. The best results were at about 1,500 feet but that put the crew at risk. A compromise was reached and the missions were generally flown from 2,000 to 4,400 feet.
Robert Chandler says in War of Ideas, The US Propaganda Campaign in Vietnam, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1981:
One technique developed in 1967, used 2,100-watt loudspeakers that could be heard in a two mile radius from altitudes of 3,000 to 4,500 feet. This was important because early in the conflict airborne broadcasts from equipment developed during the Korean War were generally inaudible on the ground. The new system permitted thousands of hours of taped messages to be aired during the remainder of the war. Particular was the use of them at night against Communist troops in the jungle to try to wear down morale and persuade them to give up the fight.
Such PSYOP flights were not always successful. Occasionally, scheduling errors caused confusion. One such case occurred in 1968 when a PSYOP officer in the 1st Australian Task Force arranged for a
loudspeaker aircraft to fly over a planned infantry operation. The officer says: US
The PSYOP officer of the 1st Australian Task Force and his staff were coordinating all the psychological warfare aspects of the operation. An aerial loudspeaker broadcast mission was scheduled once the operation had started. A
PSYOP aircraft was requested and confirmed. The PSYOP officer then went to Vung Tau on business for a couple of days. The operation was delayed for a day and all the coordination was shifted to fit the new operation timetable. The only activity that was not cancelled was the U.S. PSYOP aircraft coming from Bien Hoa. On the original day of the start of the operation the U.S. loudspeaker aircraft flew over the area of operations broadcasting the message about the current operation underway, warning the Viet Cong of impending death and calling for them to surrender. The actual operation started the following day according to the new schedule, but the Viet Cong had left the area. They had been warned of the attack by the loudspeaker aircraft. Naturally, the military being what it is, the PSYOP officer (who was not even in the AO) was blamed, but in fact it was the Operations Officer who failed in his role as coordinator. U.S.
Why Wont Anyone Listen to Me?
When you talk to numerous PSYOP veterans, certain stories seem to be heard over and over again. One is their reaction to receiving fire while flying overhead and dropping leaflets or broadcasting messages. I have been told by several PSYOP troops that after receiving ground fire they began following their leaflet or loudspeaker aircraft with a blacked-out gunship. This is all very cool as far as killing the enemy goes, but if we were trying to gain their trust and have them read our propaganda, this firing on the readers and listeners was counter-productive. No Viet Cong guerrilla is coming out of the woods to pick up a Chieu Hoi leaflet and possibly defect if he fears being shot to pieces by a blacked out gunship hiding just out of sight.
AC-47 Spooky gunship
This use of PSYOP to kill the enemy had been practiced often in Viet Nam. In 1966, under an operation known as "Quick Speak," the USAF 5th Air Commando Squadron flew C-47 aircraft equipped with 3000 watt loudspeakers over the enemy. They would fly over a target at 3,500 feet broadcasting a propaganda message. When the enemy fired at the aircraft, an AC-47 Spooky gunship flying escort behind and below the loudspeaker aircraft would open fire with three 7.62 mm mini-guns that loosed 16,000 rounds a minute.
An Army PSYOP Lieutenant recalls:
I remember when the PSYOP squadron I worked for got shot up particularly bad one night while playing Robert Brown's "Fire" to the Viet Cong over the big University 1000-Watt speaker. The next night they went up again but Spooky flew with them. Our speaker plane flew a wide orbit playing "Fire" again, and Spooky flew opposing orbit. It was night and the speaker plane was lit up like a Christmas tree to draw attention. Spooky was blacked out. The enemy opened fire with everything they had. Spooky opened up with all three miniguns on at high cyclic rate and mysteriously all of the ground fire suddenly ceased.
Specialist Fifth Class Paul Merrell was stationed in Vietnam from April 1968 until August 1970. He was a member of the 8th PSYOP Battalion of the 4th PSYOP Group trained as an 83F20 offset press operator. During his three tours in Vietnam he worked in both HQ and the field in a number of diverse operations and positions. We talked about these missions and he told me:
One mission that was unique in my experience was reconnaissance-by-PSYOP. That operation used a recording distributed by Group HQ named "Tintintabulation," a title that was either a misspelling of or perhaps a deliberate word-play upon "tintinnabulation." The recording was designed to draw enemy fire so we could call in the artillery on them. The single such mission I did was on a moonless night, about 2 a.m., using the 1,000 Watt speakers broadcasting from a Huey helicopter. It worked. We drew fire from a North Vietnamese Army 50-caliber machine gun. The aggressive warrant officer piloting the craft violated orders and decided to engage in a duel with the enemy from about 300 feet altitude rather than withdrawing and immediately calling in artillery.
If we hope to have the enemy believe in our message and our sincerity, it is probably a bad idea to shoot at him when he reads or listens to our message. This is good war-fighting and can kill many enemy, but it is lousy PSYOP.
Are These Leaflets for Us or For Them?
There are numerous cases of mistakes occurring during leaflet drops. We mention just a few here:
In one operation where the mission was to drop propaganda banknotes in
from the back of an aircraft a problem arose. The operation did not go smoothly and the plane returned with thousands of the banknotes scattered all over the cargo area. The local airport security spotted the banknotes as the plane opened its cargo doors and immediately assumed that they had discovered a currency smuggling operation and placed the crew under arrest. It all got smoothed over of course, but better mechanical methods were clearly needed. Vietnam
A similar calamity is mentioned in Air America. William Wofford is on a mission to drop CIA-forged banknotes over
They were just in paper bags and had these devices the kicker pulled which ignited a small charge and blew the bag apart. When we got back to
, we had to spend two hours cleaning the airplane because some of the bags burst before we could get them out and we had counterfeit money from one end of the airplane to the other. Vientiane
The Thomas L. Ahern, Jr. declassified Center for the Study of Intelligence secret publication Undercover Armies CIA and Surrogate Warfare in
1961-1973, discusses the hazards of using a firecracker to open a sack of leaflets: Laos
Even the most routine mission could provide moments of genuine fright, as when a giant M-80 firecracker, intended to open a sack of leaflets being dropped from the air, blew back into the aircraft before it exploded.
Speaking of explosives, Retired USAF Lieutenant Colonel Robert D. Childre flew leaflet drops out of airbase K-16, (
), from January 1952 to Late May 1952 during the Korean War. The majority of the missions were leaflet drops. The leaflets were tied bundles with a dynamite squib and a timed fuse to explode them open at about 500 feet. Because of the uneven terrain some obviously would impact on the ground unopened. Apparently if you lived on a hill in Seoul City at 700 feet attitude you had a good chance of having a bundle of leaflets crash through your roof. Korea
Killer Leaflet Boxes
decided to take part in the humanitarian feeding of the starving Bosnian people in 1992, it was understood that the people might race out into the drop zone and be crushed. As a result, two leaflets were prepared and dropped over United States . They both depict a Hercules C-130 USAF cargo plane in front of a faint Bosnia flag. Both leaflets picture crates falling by parachute marked with a bright Red Cross and both are written in Serbo-Croat text, in Latin script on one side and Cyrillic on the other side. United States
Provide Promise Warning Aerial Leaflet Dropped on
On the first leaflet, the C-130 drops four containers. The leaflet tells the Serbs not to fire on the aircraft. They drop food for all the people. The text is:
American aircraft will be dropping humanitarian aid for all people. Do not fire on American aircraft. Food and medical supplies are intended for all people.
Provide Promise Warning Aerial Leaflet Dropped on
On the second leaflet, the C-130 drops three containers labeled "500 KG." This leaflet was prepared because of accidents that occurred in
that same year when starving people rushed mindlessly into the drop zone only to be crushed by falling food crates. The leaflet text is: Somalia
Danger! For everyone's safety, let humanitarian aid land before approaching.
PSYOP troops understood the danger of the large crates of food weighing hundreds of pounds, but did they understand the danger of a simple box of leaflets falling at high speed. These boxes are generally taped and when leaving an airplane, a rope pulls the box apart and allows the leaflets to fall.
Sometimes the leaflet box did not work exactly as designed. Pat Carty mentions some of the problems in Secret Squadrons of the Eighth, Ian Allen Ltd., London, 1990. Carty says that on one occasion the 60mph winds at 30,000 feet were so strong that leaflets destined for
Pariswere dropped over . Another problem was the bundle failing to open. Carty adds: Brussels
Guardian reported that one bundle fell solidly on a small German barge, went through the bottom, and sunk it. Another bundle crashed through the roof of the Notre Dame Cathedral. Manchester
CPT Charles V. Nahlik had a similar problem during a Cold War leaflet drop over Korea:
Once over Korea, one of the leaflet boxes shipped from Ft. Bragg did not open properly. We had already released about 50 boxes so there were lots of static lines hanging out the back. The weight of the box dangling out behind the plane made it impossible to pull the lines back in. They attached an additional static line around me and with oxygen mask pumping away; I crawled out under the lines, foot, legs and hands until I could reach the line. I took out a knife and cut the box loose to fall into the ocean below--- fortunately we were not over land so we didn't have to worry about messing up the roof of a South Korean family home. We kept several of the boxes on board so we could check them when we got back to Okinawa and found out that the static lines were not properly wrapped around the box.
On another occasion, a leaflet box scored a direct hit on a Korean house. I was told:
The box that went through the roof of a Korean home happened somewhere along the DMZ in Korea. It busted the hell out of their tile roof and landed in their kitchen and right on the table. The US repaired the home and replaced the table.
Navigator Captain Bob Wyatt was a member of the 35th Troop Carrier Squadron during the Vietnam War in May 1968. He says:
In late 1968 or early 1969 we had a few drops where the static line did not open the box of leaflets. From then on we navigators had to be extra careful on our position while dropping. I wonder what the terminal velocity is on one of those boxes.
Former aircrew member James D. Trozzo mentions another Vietnam War operation that didnt exactly go as planned:
On a mission somewhere over
we spotted two small boats beached on a sandbar. Black pajama clad people were unloading or loading boxes but they never looked up as they heard us fly over. I was aghast; here was Charlie out in the open, and we couldn't even get a shooter to go after him. Since we were truly alone, unarmed and not necessarily afraid, we did the next best thing a "Goony Bird" crew could do. We made another pass over the boats with a "steady on course 072 degrees, correct to 1 left, drifting, drifting, left 2, steady, steady, bombs away!" At the command of bombs away, someone kicked out 5 unopened boxes of Chieu Hoi leaflets stored under our door netting. I tried to watch the impact to report damage at our debriefing, but the pilot said, "Were getting the hell out of Dodge," as he dove away for airspeed before the fireworks started. Cambodia
Richard Arent mentioned a similar case he heard about while flying EC-47 missions out of Pleiku in the summer of 1969:
On several missions I would be handed a cardboard box of leaflets and told to drop them wherever I could. I remember reading a Time Magazine article about a Viet Cong member who surrendered after his friend was hit in the head by such a box of leaflets. I recall seeing it upon my return to Okinawa.
In spring of 2004 the
Army published a lessons learned book on the second Gulf war entitled On Point: the United States Army in Iraqi Freedom. The book describes an interesting action in regard to psychological warfare and the use of the leaflet box. According to the authors, in the early hours of active combat, an Iraqi soldier was killed during a PSYOP operation: United States
The cause of death was a box of leaflets that fell out of a Combat Talon aircraft when a static line broke. The box impacted on the Iraqi guard's head, and the 9th PSYOP Battalion may have achieved the first enemy "killed in action" of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
A similar death occurred on 23 June 2009 when a Royal Air Force C-130 Hercules transport plane accidentally killed a young girl in
by dropping a box of leaflets on her. According to the BBC, the leaflet box was supposed to open in mid-air, spreading pro-coalition propaganda over rural Helmand province, but the container failed to break apart, landing on top of the girl, who died later in the hospital. The RAF said it deeply regretted the incident and has launched an investigation into how the box, which could have weighed up to 40 pounds, hit the girl. Afghanistan
When the Israeli Air Force dropped leaflets over the Gaza Strip another accident occurred. According to one Muslim website:
On Monday the 25th of May, heavy boxes of leaflets were dropped over residential homes across Gaza, from the northern parts of Bait Hanoun and Bait Lahia, Khan Younis and Gaza City, to the southern parts of Kerem Shalom and Rafah. A child, the 12-year old Muhammad Dughmush from Tel Al-Hawa neighborhood of Gaza City, was struck and injured in his neck and back by a box of leaflets which was dropped by Israeli helicopters.
The U.S. Government apparently figured out that aerial leaflet drops were hazardous because in the draft document Psychological Operations at a Tactical Level we find the comment:
When PSYOP leaders plan a leaflet drop using an M-129 or a PDU-5/B leaflet bomb, they must take noncombatant injuries into consideration. The positive effects of a leaflet drop may be undermined if the spent casing of one of these bombs injures or kills people on the ground.
I suppose the conclusion of this section is that you cannot win the hearts and minds of a friendly people by dropping leaflets in boxes that cause damage and death. I assume that this is just the tip of the iceberg and over a period of 60 years of heavy leafleting there have been hundreds of such unreported accidents.
Know Your Movie Audience
We were talking recently about how important it was to know your target audience and we all had examples of mistakes. The first was during the Vietnam War.
The Montagnards (French for "Mountain People") were the indigenous peoples of the Central Highlands of
. The Montagnards were looked down upon by many of the Vietnamese as savages due to their aboriginal lifestyle. After all, these were people who still used crossbows to hunt. On the other hand, the United States Army Special Forces were quick to recognize them as excellent trackers and fighters and began to recruit them for military service. By the end of the war approximately 40,000 had been recruited to help fight the North Vietnamese. Vietnam
In the effort to impress one
, a PSYOP Team was sent in to win their hearts and minds. Since the tribe lived in Stilted Huts with no modern conveniences, the PSYOP team thought that they would entertain the tribe members with a movie. The team members brought a 16 mm film projector, screen and portable generator. Since the Montagnards did not speak English, the Americans selected an action-packed western oat burner. As might be expected, the Montagnard villagers were thoroughly engrossed with the action on the screen. Then came the fateful scene where the wagon train full of settlers was attacked by Indians. The villagers watched intently as the Indians arrows struck the settlers. Suddenly, the sound of a bugle playing Charge was heard as the U.S. Cavalry came riding in to the rescue, charged heroically and opened fire on the Indians. The excitable Montagnards rose as one, grabbed their crossbows and started firing arrows at the screen. As might be expected, the Montagnards, who dressed similarly to the Native Americans with loin cloths and carried bows, had identified with the Indians in the film. The morale of the story is simple. Know your target audience. Montagnard Village
Specialist 5th Class Pasquale Vallese who was in Vietnam from November 1968 to November 1969 as part of the U.S. Army 7th PSYOP Battalion attached to the 3rd Marine Division also showed western movies to the locals:
At night we would travel down Highway One towards Quang Tri, and get into those back-road villages for MEDCAP (Medical Civic Action Programs). We were just one truck with a movie projector, a generator, a screen, an interpreter, a reel of the latest Armed Forces TV show (usually Wild Wild West), and a Vietnamese language film or two about good health practices. I have no idea how they knew what James West was saying, but the people really enjoyed watching our shows.
That reminded me of a similar case where shortly after the war I sat with a group of sullen Japanese as we watched Flying Leathernecks together. There was not a peep out of them as we reclined on the straw mats drinking our sake. John Wayne and his fellow Marines killed the Japanese by the hundreds. Then came that one scene that was in every WWII war movie where
depicted the enemy as barbaric savages that must be killed on sight. A young blond American pilots plane was hit. He heroically climbed out on the wing and parachuted to what should have been safety. But then, the evil grinning Japanese pilot with thick glasses and buck-teeth opened fire on the Marine, killing him in midair as he helplessly hung from his parachute. The entire audience cheered. It was the only victory for the Japanese in the entire movie and they enjoyed every bit of it. It taught us a valuable lesson. What worked very well as domestic American propaganda worked awfully when shown outside the Hollywood . United States
Know Your Listening Audience
During the Vietnam War, an attempt was made to terrify the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops. They believed that if they died far from home and their bodies were never found or properly buried, they would become a cursed soul forever walking the Earth. The operation was code-named Wandering Soul.
PSYOP troops spent weeks recording eerie sounds. These cries, wails, special effects and funeral dirges were intended to represent souls of the enemy dead who had failed to find the peace of a proper burial. The tapes that were produced were quite scary and even the Americans noticed that they sometimes got goose-bumps and shivers down their spines when they listened to them. U.S.
There was one problem. The troops of the Army of
had the same general beliefs, and as a result we scared the dickens out of our allies as much as we did the enemy. South Vietnam
Raymond Deitch, former commander of the
Army 6th PSYOP Battalion said: U.S.
The tape was so effective that we were instructed not to play it within earshot of the South Vietnamese forces, because they were as susceptible as the Viet Cong or North Vietnamese Army.
Bill Ogle, a U.S. Navy Seawolf pilot who flew a number of PSYOP missions in 1968-1969 recalled playing what he called The Howling Ghost tapes many times.
We had a short Vietnamese-language tape made that said, "Drop your weapons and stand up." The idea was to play it from our 1400-watt broadcast system on a
Army Huey helicopter which would fly over the area just ahead of the South Vietnamese Marines as they hit the beach. U.S.
At the nightly briefing later that evening we were told the operation was a success and that our broadcast resulted in five enemy Viet Cong dropping their weapons and surrendering to the Marines. Unfortunately, the bad news was that it also resulted in several Vietnamese Marines dropping their weapons and raising their hands.
It was not only the Vietnamese that were superstitious. Kenneth Conboy says in Shadow War The CIAs Secret War in Laos about an operation to convince the Pathet Lao that one of their dead generals was talking to them:
Ghost music and recordings allegedly in the generals voice were played from airborne loudspeakers; on one of these flights, the broadcasting aircraft passed too close to a Royal
Army garrison, causing the spooked Royalist troops to desert en masse. Laos
During the Korean War, a 1952 campaign called Operation Heartache was designed to lower morale and combat effectiveness by increasing the Chinese soldiers anxiety over loved ones at home. The early programs built up a listening audience by playing news and music. Once the audience was captured, the broadcasts became very emotional with alleged letters from home and offers of good treatment and a safe return after the end of the war for those who surrendered. It is unknown how the messages affected the Chinese, but the sad messages worked on the South Korean soldiers who heard them. Allegedly, some broke down in tears over the loudspeaker broadcasts designed to induce nostalgia, thoughts of home, and worry about conditions at home. The lesson learned is to warn your own people when you are going to broadcast very emotional messages or get them out of hearing range.
As long as we are mentioning recordings, we should point out that the Army PSYOP teams had problems with the issued tape recorders. According to the Department of the Army Contact Team in Vietnam Study Employment of US Army Psychological Operations Units in Vietnam, 7 June 1969, under field combat operations PSYOP HB (Loudspeaker) teams encountered many problems with the AN/UNH-10 issued tape recorder. The battery charge sometimes lasted less than an hour and since they did not use standard batteries they became useless. The size and weight of the AN/UNH-10 was another problem when they were used on backpacks. The fidelity was limited and would not provide suitable reproduction capability. The report pointed out that the Sony recorder model TC-800 had been used by the HB teams with excellent results and none of the problems of the AN/UNH-10. The Sony TC-800 also cost one-tenth of the cost of the AN/UNH-10 recorder. Further studies were recommended to see if the Sony recorder should replace the AN/UNH -10.
An officer who was assigned to the 10th PSYOP Battalion in 1968 apparently used the Sony already. He does not mention if the tape recorder was issued or bought by the unit. He said:
We had Sony's cassettes in 1968 and they worked flawlessly. I have logged many hours in a U10 with one on my lap. We never played more than 20 min on a mission. You orbit too long and the Viet Cong wake up and perforate your perfectly good aircraft. The batteries were not a problem that I remember. I guess we changed them as a routine maintenance protocol. There is a button that you can push that shows battery strength! Woe unto the operations Air Lieutenant who doesn't check the batteries before a mission.
As strange as it may seem, the use of color in a leaflet can make it more or less effective and in fact can make the carefully worded propaganda message worthless - should the target audience refuse to pick it up simply because of its color. There have been some classified studies on this subject and data is hard to locate. However, I have found some contraindications in various military manuals.
Red to an American or an Arab may signify danger; whereas, in communist countries red may signify loyalty and patriotism. During Operation Desert Storm it was discovered that the color red signals danger to an Iraqi and he would be hesitant to pick up a leaflet with red in the image or text. Many early leaflets that used red were found to be unsuccessful, and the color might have been a contributing factor. Allegedly, there was an official recommendation to remove any trace of the color red, which is a danger signal to Iraqis. Canary yellow is favored in China, and green in Ireland. Colors included in the national flags of countries are considered safe colors to use. In some countries, red may be used to suggest violence, blue or green for peaceful scenes, and black or white for death. Colors can have religious connotations. Green is universally the color of the faithful in the Moslem world. In the west, it is often associated with health and nature and generally has no religious significance.
If the psywarrior wants to attract attention, color in a leaflet might contrast sharply with the predominant color of the terrain over which the leaflet is to be disseminated. At other times, to protect the finder of the offending leaflet, the color may blend with the terrain in areas where punitive or other sanctions have been imposed to limit the reading of enemy leaflets. When the British fought Communist insurgents in Malaya they ingeniously developed the light yellow sand and the deep brown earth colors for leaflets to be thrown near streams and rivers to enable the comrade soldier to secretly glance at them without undue attention from his commissar. Sometimes the leaflets were bright to attract attention, sometimes dark to avoid it. Another Malayan expert added:
Leaflets were printed in a mixture of bright colors like red, yellow and orange and dull colors like grey, blue and green. This was because terrorists would not dare pick up bright leaflets for fear of being caught by their leaders, and would only risk picking up the less obvious colors.
Former Major Nelson Voke did two tours in Vietnam, one with the 6th PSYOP Battalion and the second as a Senior Advisor with the Vietnamese Army 17th Armored Cavalry Regiment. He told me how his men studied the use of color in propaganda to the Vietnamese people during his first tour:
We started using color after doing some research into the meanings of colors to the Vietnamese; not long after I left the research was redone and my S2 (Intelligence) Section Sergeant sent me a copy of the report. We found that lavender implied emotion associated with love; love of family, etc. The popular Vietnamese romantic magazines of the day used a lot of lavender ink. So, when we designed a leaflet urging the soldier to think about the conditions faced by his faraway wife and children, we put the message in lavender.
According to American advertisers, the following colors have the ability to bring forth the following emotions.
RED: Emotionally powerful, exciting.
YELLOW: Intensity, intellectual, attention-getting.
GREEN: Nature, refreshing, wealth.
BLUE: Calming, focus, loyalty.
PURPLE: Luxury, wealth, romance.
WHITE: Purity, cleanliness, innocence.
BLACK: Authority and power.
PINK: Soothing and relaxing.
BROWN: Earthy, genuine, wistful.
However, it is important to remember that these are the emotions felt by an American. A non-American can have very different or even completely opposite emotions.
The Captured Crew of the USS Pueblo
When preparing PSYOP campaigns it is important to understand any gestures or hand signals that your featured captives might make. It is very easy for an alleged penitent war criminal to make a sign to show his people that he is alive and confident and has not mentally surrendered to the enemy. In both Korea and Vietnam there have been cases where the enemy put Americans before a Camera to confess to their sins and read lines of repentance.
After the North Koreans captured the US Navy intelligence ship Pueblo in international waters on 23 January 1968, they placed the crew in front of camera to confess their crimes. The Americans extended their middle finger in what some comedians have called Half a Victory Sign or the Hawaiian Good Luck Sign. Of course, Americans know that the gesture basically told the North Koreans to perform an act of sodomy upon themselves, but the North Koreans had not a clue. A newspaper at the time displayed the photograph with the caption:
The North Koreans are having a tough time proving to the world that the captive crewmen of the USS Pueblo are a contrite and cooperative lot. Last week, Pyongyangs flacks tried again and lost to the U.S. Navy. In this class-reunion picture, three of the crewmen have managed to use the medium for a message, furtively getting off the U.S hand signal of obscene derisiveness and contempt.
Navy Commander Paul Galanti
In June 1967 American POW Paul Galanti was filmed by an East German film crew in North Vietnam. To show his disdain for being used in a propaganda event, he unobtrusively gives the Communist propagandists the finger. He said later:
I gave a catchers signal with both middle fingers extended and glared at the camera the whole time. I extended my middle finger on each hand to make certain that anybody who saw that picture didnt think in any way, shape or form that I was doing it voluntarily.
The lesson for any good PSYOP expert is that you must know all the symbols, signs and gestures that your enemy can use as a sign of contempt. Otherwise, you can make a hero of your prisoner and an idiot of yourself.
Invincible silhouette on Argentine aircraft
This is an interesting story that could be a major mistake or a clever deception operation. Governments might be involved or it might be wishful thinking on the part of excited pilots and patriotic citizens.
There is an Argentine study of the
So, what are the options? The Argentines might have claimed to hit the Invincible to shore up their morale. The British might have hidden the strike to shore up their morale. The mission might have never happened. One conspiracy theory claims that there were two aircraft carriers Invincible. What could be the origin of such a story?
The theory that the Invincible was sunk or severely damaged during the Falklands
War has been on the internet for years and may be widely believed in
The website El Malvinense (The Falklander) adds that according to the
British official history, on 17 September 1982, the aircraft carrier HMS Invincible
Curiously, there arent any photos of the arrival. However, you can see lots of photos of the Hermes and other important ships that returned to
. The Queen of England , accompanied by Prince Philip visited the supposed Invincible that day, but no photo exists. It was the last ship to get to port. (The others arrived between June and August). England
The only investigators of the mystery, the Yahoo group Malvinas, seguimos ganando (who maintain that the ship sank), have discovered that the Invincible was replaced after the war by its twin, the HMS Illustrious, in order to hide what really happened on 30 May 1982.
I dont know who is fooling who and am not sure that anyone is fooling anyone. I leave it for the reader to put together this puzzle. Until proven otherwise I must assume that the Invincible returned home safely and the Argentine claim of a strike on the carrier is either deception or error.
Sinking of the Argentine Cruiser General Belgrano
From a PSYOP standpoint, it was not only the Argentines that may have made an error
Fort Amador, Panama 1989
What did you say I cant hear you
This story is not exactly a mistake, but an interesting error that reminds us to think about what we are doing and how our actions might affect the enemy.
On 20 December 1989, the U.S. Army 82nd Airborne Division conducted their first combat jump since World War II onto Torrijos International Airport on Panama. The 1st Battalion of the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment had the mission of securing Ft. Amador, an installation shared by the American and Panamanian Defense Forces. PSYOP loudspeaker teams were a key asset. The battalion sealed off the Panamanian Defense Forces portion of Ft. Amador and ensured that all noncombatants were safe. After daylight, the task force set about systematically securing the area. When initial appeals failed to persuade the Panamanians to surrender, the American commander modified the broadcasts. The holdouts were warned that resistance was hopeless in the face of overwhelming firepower and a series of demonstrations took place, escalating from small arms to 50 caliber machinegun and 105mm howitzer rounds. A scout who took part in the operation told me that after the 105s were fired directly into the buildings at Amador, the Americans asked the Panamanian Defense Force survivors why they didn't surrender when the PSYOP loudspeaker kept calling for them to come out and not be harmed. They replied:
After that first 105 round hit, we couldn't hear anything!
A comical lesson learned. Dont blow out enemy eardrums before you call for their surrender. Subsequent broadcasts convinced the PDF to give up. The entire process allowed Ft. Amador to be secured with few casualties and minimal damage.
The "Star of David" Leaflet to the Iraqis
This "mistake" is not so much an error as it was simply a bad idea. During a deception campaign in Operation Desert Storm the U.S. forces produced a leaflet showing the symbol of the VII Corps. There was nothing wrong with this idea, except that the VII Corps symbol is the Roman number "VII" inside of a 7-pointed star. The symbol looks very much like the Jewish "Star of David," a six-pointed star. This was apparently a symbol that the Coalition thought might be found offensive by its Arab members and thus they hurriedly printed a second leaflet showing VII Corps "Jayhawk" logo. Curiously, although not offensive to the Arabs, the Jayhawk was a derogatory term used by pro-slavery residents of Missouri to identify murderous anti-slavery raiders from Kansas in the pre-Civil War days.
Whats That Over His Head?
In the United States when an artist wants to show what a person is thinking in a caricature or cartoon, he draws a series of bubbles over the persons head to imply thought. This is understood by most Americans, and one need not use any descriptive phrases like "He thinks " During Desert Storm the Coalition produced a number of leaflets using such "thought bubbles" to show Iraqi soldiers thinking about home, their families, or the overwhelming might of Coalition forces. One of the early leaflets depicts an Iraqi and an Arab soldier facing each other with weapons at the ready. Both have the little bubbles rising from their head to a depiction of Saddam Hussein. The idea was that both men were thinking of the Iraqi dictator. A second picture shows both men shaking hands, their weapons on the ground. The text on the back is, "Brother Iraqis, all we want is peace." The only problem with this leaflet is that apparently there is no history of little bubbles meaning "thought" in the Arab world. If true, the Iraqi finder of this leaflet must have studied it in complete puzzlement for some time wondering, "Why is Saddams head floating in the air?"
You Want Me to What?
During Operation Desert Storm Coalition leaflets were disseminated from both Saudi Arabia and Turkey. One of the European Command (EUCOM) products from Turkey was a full-colored leaflet that depicted an Iraqi soldier thinking of the overwhelming power of the Coalition tanks and aircraft, then thinking of his wife and children. The back of the leaflet depicted the Joint Forces Seal and the 27 flags of the Coalition in full color.
There were many printing errors with this leaflet. I probably have seen more errors on this single item than any other Coalition leaflet. For instance, numerous color shifts exist. Both the front and back are sometimes wholly or partially color shifted, and the front and/or back sometimes are missing the red, yellow or blue color. These errors probably arise because of the need to make four separate runs through the color press.
Worse, there was a problem with the text. The Coalition propagandists wanted to say, "Brother Iraqi soldiers, our great tragedy is we do not want you to come back to Iraq dead or crippled." That is a rather nice and comforting thought, but what the leaflet actually says is "Brother Iraqi soldiers, our great tragedy is to want you to come back to Iraq dead or crippled." We may hope that the Iraqis ultimately figured out what the Coalition meant to say.
There were other surprises for US PSYOP troops in the Gulf. Early leaflets depicted Coalition soldiers as clean-shaven, meeting all the standards of US military grooming. However, to the Arab that clean-shaven chin represented immaturity and lack of trust.
The psywarriors were advised to show Allied soldiers with chin beards rather than clean-shaven faces because beards convey trust and brotherhood in the Iraqi culture. Another recommendation was to remove any trace of the color red, which is a danger signal to Iraqis.
February 29th, February 30th
This leaflet is not exactly what I would call a mistake. Perhaps it is better called a "misunderstanding" or "miscommunication."
A PSYOP printing unit does more than just print leaflets. It is called upon to print certificates, awards and other printed products. Some of the jobs during Desert Storm were "access badges," "5th Group pads," 9th Battalion Christmas cards" and "SOCCENT stickers." There are also many morale-building certificates, cartoons, promotion certificates, and of course "end of tour" certificates. These are all for internal use and not to be showered upon the enemy. For instance, one such document I have depicts Saddam Hussein being covered by leaflets dropped from an overhead aircraft and the words "In appreciation from the Combined PSYOP Task Force JTF Proven Force."
Now it gets interesting. A small PSYOP leaflet dropped on Iraqi troops from US PSYOP forces in Turkey depicts Saddam Hussein swinging a sword and cutting off his own head with the comment in English "Oops." The head hitting the ground makes the sound "thud," also in English. The cartoon is signed [Tim] "Wallace." Text on the back of the leaflet in Arabic is "30 February 1991 Saddams prediction Be assured that I will solve the problem of Kuwait on 30 February "
There are a few things wrong with this leaflet. The text in the front is in English. Worse, there is no February 30, so it is obviously meant to be a gag. Why would we drop such a confusing leaflet over the Iraqis? We wrote Ft. Bragg in September 1991 and asked that very question. The answer is as follows:
The copy of the leaflet you provided in your letter was drawn by an artist in the 4th Psychological Operations Group (Airborne). It was not distributed to opposing forces but was done as a cartoon within the command. The point of the cartoon is that nothing will occur on 30 February since 30 February does not exist. This point would certainly be lost on Southwest Asian audience given their use of an Arabic calendar.
The spokesman was partially correct. The leaflets were not disseminated from Saudi Arabia. However, the PSYOP cell in Riyadh mistakenly beamed the image by satellite up to the EUCOM group in Turkey who didnt get the joke. They printed the leaflet and disseminated it over Northern Iraq. Can you imagine the confusion of the finders?
We spoke to Tim Wallace about this leaflet in 2009. He said:
I had been sending the various political cartoons back stateside to the
newspaper Paraglide and someone mistook it for a PSYOP product when they saw it in my work-area. It was mass produced without my knowledge, and dropped somewhere North around the Ft. Bragg border. Turkish
Whoever swiped it off my desk did not realize that it would not make an effective leaflet in that region. In our culture we see the image as a secession of frames describing an action, i.e. Saddam rattling his sword at us and then cutting off his own head in the process. Westerners get the joke. From what I understand people in the
Mideastsee it differently. Not as a sequence, but as three separate Saddams. Therefore, it made no sense to the Iraqis and the image only caused confusion. Worse, it had my signature in big bold letters on it. While I like that kind of exposure for my work in the U.S, I could not think of a worse location where I would want to advertise my name than . Iraq
Later a reporter from
News and World Report found the leaflet on the ground and had it published in their news magazine of 16 March 1992. Back in those days one of my goals was to have my work published in national magazine like U.S. News and World Report, and I guess I did reach that goal, just not the way that I imagined. U.S.
Some leaflet concepts were considered too crude or too bloody to be used by the Coalition during Operation Desert Storm. This oversized leaflet did not make the cut. An arm labeled "The world" in Arabic holds Saddam by the throat while a knife labeled "UN January 15" in English prepares to behead him. Text on the back is in Arabic, "Time is not going to help you. 15 January will arrive soon." Because of the mixed languages this leaflet was likely made by the Americans for the Coalition as a morale booster.
It's the law
A similar leaflet in full color with all Arabic text showing Saddam's hand cut off was approved by the Coalition. The all Arab text on the back of this leaflet is: It is the law, Saddam will not continue with his crimes unpunished. On December 4th, 1990, 35,000 copies of this leaflet were printed. There is no record of this leaflet being disseminated.
Bart Simpson is Having Sex With Your Wife
The Iraqis were having problems with their own psychological operations. They had a propaganda radio station that broadcast to Coalition troops. They wanted to use anti-morale messages, and historically the way to do that is to tell the enemy that while he fights the slackers are at home with his women. The Germans did this in WWII telling the British and the Australians that while they were at the front the Americans were having sex with their wives and girlfriends. The British produced leaflets telling the German troops that the foreign workers imported into Germany as laborers were in bed with their women. The Iraqis thought this was a wonderful idea. So, who can they say is with the wives and girlfriends of American troops in the gulf? They allegedly decided to use some names that any American would recognize. They selected Tom Cruise, Tom Selleck and Bart Simpson.
The British newspaper The Guardian wrote in 1991:
BAGHDAD BETTY, Iraq's English-language radio service, has taken a credibility nosedive. Over the weekend Betty indulged in some mischievous bitchery by telling US soldiers that their wives back home were committing adultery by sleeping with movie stars. Big-screen heartthrobs like Tom Cruise, Arnold Schwarzenegger and Bart Simpson. The first two might have presented some cause for anxiety, but who initiated the deviant practice of molesting under-age, primary coloured cartoon characters?
However, according to Snopes.com, the entire story is just an urban legend. Snopes says:
On February 1 host Johnny Carson opened the show with what he called a retraction. He recalled that some time previously his writers had manufactured a gag about an Iraqi announcer called "Baghdad Betty" telling soldiers their womenfolk were being romanced at home by "Tom Selleck, Tom Cruise and Homer Simpson."
The story spread, Carson said, and soon it was being retold, even on wire services, as fact, with one change Homer Simpson, the father in the Simpsons animated cartoon series, was replaced by Bart Simpson, his 9-year-old son. Said Carson: "It was a joke. We made it up."
The problem is, there are soldiers today who swear that they heard the broadcasts. Whatever the truth, Baghdad Betty was a bust. She began broadcasting in English to allied troops in Saudi Arabia in early September 1990. Her broadcasts were believed to originate in Baghdad with transmitters in southern Iraq and Kuwait. Col. Jeff Jones, commanding officer of the Armys 8th Psychological Task Force said Bettys broadcasts were laughable. "Her broadcasts proved the Iraqis didnt understand us at all. Her ignorance was pervasive. She was never sure of her sources, and broadcast old information based on dated news." Saddam Hussein wasnt impressed with Bettys efforts either. In mid-December 1990 she was sacked after only three months of broadcasting, and replaced by a collection of announcers who called themselves "The Mother of Battles Radio."
So, did they or didnt they? President Bush believed the story and used it in one of his speeches. The Iraqi leaflet propaganda was so bad that it is easy to believe that they could have made the broadcasts. Either you believe or you dont.
There is a Daddy for You!
The Iraqis constantly made mistakes in their campaigns to win the hearts and minds of the CNN audience. On 23 August 1990, Saddam went on television with a young child named Stuart who was being held hostage against Coalition bombing. Saddam thought that it showed his fatherly side. Americans and British viewers were incensed that he would use and frighten a child, and the Kuwaiti government-in-exile immediately prepared a brochure comparing Saddam with WWII photographs of Adolf Hitler in a similar fatherly pose. Besides the photograph of Saddam with the hostage, the brochure also depicted dead Shiite and Kurdish children, the destruction of buildings in Kuwait, and other illustrations of Iraqi inhumanity.
U.S. Navy Lieutenant Jeffrey Zaun
When the bombing of Iraq started Saddam Hussein had a captured American aviator shown on Iraqi TV. U.S. Navy Lieutenant Jeffrey Zaun was shot down on 17 January 1991 in an A6 fighter-bomber from the carrier Saratoga. His face was injured as if he were beaten and the words he spoke seemed to be scripted for him. Once again the Coalition was incensed. Every time the Iraqis tried to use psychological operations to gain sympathy they simply made the Coalition partners more angry.
Philip M. Taylor discusses this in Munitions of the Mind: A history of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day, Manchester University Press, UK, 2003:
Saddam Hussein, who believed in the Vietnam Syndrome decided to allow journalists from coalition countries to remain behind once the bombing started so that they could report from the Iraqi capital under fire in the hope that anticipated stomach-churning casualties would repel the western audiences to the point of protesting that the war should stop. Just like the North Vietnamese, the Iraqis hoped to win the war on the domestic fronts of their enemies, and even tried Vietnam-style propaganda ploys such as parading of captured coalition airmen on Iraqi television. Allowing western journalists to stay behind in an enemy capital under fire seemed, as David frost pointed out in disgust, the equivalent of dr. Goebbels permitting British and American journalists to remain in Dresden while Allied bombers torched the city.
Can you say "Baby Milk Plant?"
Perhaps the Iraqi's worse faux pas was when an American bomb struck a building that was allegedly hiding a biological weapons facility. The Iraqis invited the CNN to see the carnage and sitting amidst the rubble of an Arab factory was an English-language sign "Baby Milk Plant." In fact, the workers wore jackets that had hastily been marked "Baby Milk Plant" on the back. Curiously, Peter Arnett even found the blueprints for the milk factory conveniently on the ground near where his guides placed him. It was such an obvious prepared photo opportunity that few people were fooled. The Iraqis never understood PSYOP and made one blunder after another.
Blacked out page 26 of Print Company Leaflet Magazine
I will end this section on Desert Storm with a comment that I never intended to print because it was a minor embarrassment for the PSYOP troops at the time. As I write this comment 15 years have passed and I think it is safe to talk about something that a unit tried to keep secret in 1991.
Many of the leaflets during Desert Storm were printed by the Psychological Operations
Dissemination Battalion. To commemorate their success they produced a souvenir booklet
entitled Print Company Leaflet Magazine
The original Page 26 of the Print Company Leaflet Magazine
Other PSYOP officers later told me that because the leaflet depicted on page 26 had an Iraqi soldier surrendering while holding a white cloth over his head, the page had been defaced because it looked like the soldier was holding a diaper and it might infuriate or embarrass the Iraqis. No Iraqi male would change a diaper and to be holding one was the ultimate insult. Not quite so good a story, but still acceptable.
I finally saw the page without overprint. There was no discussion of the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. There was a surrendering Iraqi holding a white cloth. But most important, there was the following text next to the leaflet:
Arabic is read from right to left. We didnt realize that until we started printing in
. Several times, we almost printed the leaflet backwards, until we learned to look for the periods and exclamation marks on the left end of sentences. If the text had no punctuation, well, then we were out of luck. Saudi Arabia
So, although I cannot prove it, I will believe to my dying day that some officer read that printed statement and was so embarrassed at the idea that Americans could not tell where a sentence started or ended that he had the comment covered and attempted to have all the booklets destroyed.
On the other hand, I should point out that the leaflet in question was never disseminated. As stated above, it shows an Iraqi soldier with a white cloth on the front and the text:
Raise a white flag
The back is all text:
Saddams armies expose you to great danger. The Coalition forces are getting closer to you with great speed. Your positions will be bombarded soon and we do not want cause innocent civilian casualties. We ask you to vacate the area and move north. The civilian areas of
will not be bombed. Flee immediately!!! Baghdad
So, you must make a choice. Was the page blackened because the soldier held a diaper or because the Dissemination Battalion was embarrassed by the text?
By the way, notice this is not the first instance where there was confusion. Earlier in this article we mention Korean text being printed backwards.
Oops - Right to Left
Curiously, 20 years later, what was a disaster for PSYOP troops was turned into a cartoon featuring a cola salesman:
A disappointed Cola salesman returns from his Middle East assignment.
A friend asked, "Why weren't you successful with the Arabs?"
The salesman explained:
When I got posted in the Middle East , I was very confident that I would make a good sales pitch as Cola is virtually unknown there. But I had a problem I didn't know to speak Arabic. So, I planned to convey the message through three posters...
First poster: A man lying in the hot desert sand...totally exhausted and fainting.
Second poster: The man is drinking our Cola.
Third poster: Our man is now totally refreshed.
These posters were pasted all over the place
Then that should have worked! said the friend.
The hell it should have! said the salesman. I didn't realize that Arabs read from right to left
The Slave Nations
A host of local petty warlords and clans ruled Somalia. They fought bitterly to control their small parcels of barren land and starving citizens. This was especially true in the capitol city of Mogadishu. The situation was so bad in that city that it was estimated that 500,000 Somalis would die of starvation in 1992. American President George Bush found himself under tremendous pressure to send troops to protect humanitarian relief workers and the food shipped to the starving nation. He authorized the deployment of American troops in an operation called Restore Hope. As part of that operation a number of leaflets were prepared to introduce the Somalis to their American benefactors. One leaflet had a spelling error, which was widely publicized and caused some criticism of the American PSYOP effort.
The front of the leaflet is a handsome full-color depiction of an American soldier and a Somali citizen shaking hands. The leaflet was normally dropped two to three days before United Nations forces arrived in a Somali town. The back depicts the flag of the United Nations and the United States. The official translation of the text is, "The forces of the world (United Nations) are here to assist in the international relief effort for the Somali people. We are prepared to use force to protect the relief operation and our soldiers. We will not allow interference with food distribution or with our activities. We are here to help you."
The San Francisco Chronicle of 12 December 1992 said about this leaflet:
The Marines are here, and they may need a few good men who can translate. A leaflet the U.S. forces are using to win over the Somali people bears an almost incomprehensible message, muddled by at least three misspelled words, one word that does not exist and poor syntax the first word is the most noticeable error. It was supposed to read aduunka or world in the phrase world forces. The word appears as adoonka, which means "slave."
Even the experts seem to be unsure about the words that should have been used. In another report, David Evans said:
If you look at the back, there are a number of physical spelling errors in the text. And the first word here, "adunka," literally translated means "slave." It should have been spelled "avonka" for "United Nations." So, you have the first two words, instead of reading "United Nations," reads "slave nations."
The commander of the United States Army 8th PSYOP Battalion told me, "This error was a result of poor communications and a failure to double check the final product before we printed it. We sent a facsimile of the English message to Norfolk where the sailor (a native-borne Somali who left home at age of twelve) was based. After he translated it into Somali and sent a facsimile of the translation, we then typed the leaflet into our computer. After the Central Command and the Joint Chiefs of Staff changed some of the words, we passed the changes verbally over the telephone to the sailor, and received the changes to his translation back over the telephone. We then produced the leaflets. We should have sent him a facsimile of the final product before we printed it."
Americans are great ball-busters so this tiny spelling error came back to haunt the 8th Battalion. Some of the members of other PSYOP units got to calling them the Adoonka Ciidanka Battalion. I am informed by an attendee that at the 1993 4th PSYOP Group Dining Out there were a skits where the soldiers performed Rap Songs disparaging the other Battalions. When they got to the verse about the 8th PSYOP Battalion the lyrics brought down the house. They went something like this:
8th Battalion is our name
Adoonka Ciidanka is our fame.
Waiting for Godot er...Superman
During the recent troubles between
Superman has come to help the children of Bosnia-Herzegovina! But even when he can't be here, you can keep yourself safe from land mines! Mines kill kids! For more information on how you can prevent these accidents, call the mine action center.
Lieutenant Colonel Nick Swayne was the liaison with DC Comics in
The French were not enamored with the comic book, apparently disturbed that Superman
represented Truth, Justice and the
Philip M. Taylor criticized this leaflet in Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day, Manchester University Press, UK, 2003. He claims:
A classic example of how such well-intentioned propaganda can backfire, this comic had to be withdrawn when it was discovered that some young children were deliberately walking into minefields in the hope that Superman would come and save them.
The Landmine Monitor seems to agree. They dont exactly say that young children might enter a minefield, but they do say:
Most attention, however, has been focused on the Superman comic book, with concerns being widely expressed as to both its technical accuracy and cultural appropriateness. The comic book has apparently been used to advantage as one of a number of media items in
but overall the reaction has been extremely negative. As a result, the original version produced for Bosnia-Herzegovina has now been withdrawn from distribution; a Spanish version was not distributed in Guatemala Colombia; and a version planned for appears to have been shelved, at least for now. Independent testing of the Superman comic book in Kosovo concluded that it was suitable for children in the 10-14 age group but not for children in the 7-9 age group, who might infer incorrect and dangerous messages. Mozambique
These comments are rejected by Major Jeffrey White who told me that it was never
withdrawn from circulation, and definitely not as Phil Taylor suggests, based on the
rationale that he cited. Major White never saw any comic books returned to
LTC Swayne states that he recalls two minor negative reactions to the Superman Comic Book. The first occurred when he coordinated with the United Nations Mine Action Center in Sarajevo prior to putting their phone number on the back cover of the comic book and matching poster. They were not prepared for the number of calls that flooded their office. Overnight their office went from a Sleepy Hollow to a place where the phone never quit ringing.
The second was something that did not come out in pre or post-testing among the 10 to 15-year-old target audience. It was brought up by the International Press Corps at the unveiling of the comic book in the Sarajevo Holiday Inn. They posed questions about the sexist nature of the comic in that the girl was always the subordinate character. The comic was made for an audience and culture where that is the case whether we like it or not. As a result, although it was an overwhelming success among the target audience, it was scrutinized by the international press because it did not depict an unrealistic dominant role for the female characters.
On one occasion there was a problem with a mine awareness coloring book. U.S. Army Reserve Major Thomas Bergman was activated in December of 1995 for a tour in Bosnia as the PSYOP Support Element Commander attached to the 18th Military Police Brigade at Camp Comanche, near Eagle Base. He says:
Mine awareness among children was a big priority and we were pressed to arrange visits to schools and distribute mine awareness coloring books which we had never received. When they did arrive, (with crayons), the coloring books were printed on glossy paper rendering them useless to be colored on! I literally had a pallet of coloring books that had to be destroyed. Needless to say, the MP Brigade Commander was not impressed.
This is a problem easily fixed. Hopefully all propaganda coloring books are now being printed on a flat pulp paper that takes crayons well.
Another propaganda miscalculation apparently took place during the NATO
In answer, a Yugoslavian graphic artist, patriot and propaganda expert by the name of Andrej Tisma obtained the leaflet and simply transposed a picture of a crosshairs, as viewed through a circular gun sight and centered it on the helicopter, totally changing the meaning and destroying the intended effect of the leaflet. Instead of being an object to be feared, it was depicted as an easy target. It is alleged that this altered image was placed on pro-Yugoslavian Internet websites and sent around the world.
Worse, from the standpoint of veracity, the Apache attack helicopters were never
used in combat. The entire fleet was grounded for most of the war after several
of them crashed during training exercises in
Philip M. Taylor criticized the Apache leaflet in Munitions of the Mind: A history of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day, Manchester University Press, UK, 2003:
Given that the Apache was never deployed during the air campaign because of orders to fight the war from above 15,000 feet, the failure to deliver what was promised in the messages was symptomatic of a defective PSYOP campaign that failed to break either the Serb military or civilian morale.
Other minor mistakes are mentioned in the report, Target
However throughout the operations, IFOR and SFOR PSYOP campaigns were not adapted to the local populations media consumption habits. The PSYOP campaigns relied primarily on printed material (newspaper, newsmagazine and posters), while the Bosnians preferred medium was television. In addition, few Bosnians read newspapers regularly because they are expensive and tactical teams found that posters did not appeal much to this audience. Meanwhile, newspapers, posters and leaflets constituted the core of the PSYOP effort. Likewise in the radio field, IFOR/SFOR radios transmitted on AM while most Bosnians listened to FM radios.
Lack of strong regional expertise and available cultural data generated some problems, such as products not adapted to the local environment. For example, during 1996, the Combined Joint IFOR Information Campaign Task Force developed a checklist of what was done and what had to be achieved. After the product was disseminated, the CJIICTF realized that Bosnians dont do checklists. In another example, they developed a poster with a chess game to encourage voting. Bosnians interpreted it as the international community playing with
s future. Other products did not take into account the local populations knowledge and were, perhaps, too Americanized. For example, SFOR developed several products on the role of the military, the police, and the media in a democracy. These product used quotes from Western historic figures (for example, Bosnia Lincoln, Roosevelt, Clausewitz, or Clemenceau) which some did not believe appropriate for Bosnia-Herzegovina. These products did not appeal to the Bosnians culture or history, nor did they dwell on recent examples of national reconciliation or mediation. This limited the PSYOP products relevance to their target audiences.
Coupon for a Chicken Dinner?
Psychological Operations is known for winning the hearts and minds of the target audience, but in at least one country, Afghanistan, some of the PSYOP leaflets were winning stomachs. Some of the leaflets disseminated depicted a dove as a symbol of peace. Many of the Afghans, unfamiliar with the symbol, believed the bird to be some type of chicken and they assumed that the leaflet could be used as a coupon that entitled them to a free bird or meal provided by the Partnership of Nations.
Whos that Mullah?
It is rare that the wrong individual is placed on a leaflet. Even rarer when that
person is made a marked man with a price of 25 million dollars on his head. This seems to
have been the case in some early leaflets dropped on
In a number of American "wanted" leaflets, an unnamed Taliban member is shown at the right in profile, and again at the left behind bars. U.S. $20 bills are pictured at the center of the leaflet. The text is "Taliban and al Qaida leadership - Reward." The back of the leaflet is all text, "Reward for information leading to the whereabouts or capture of Taliban and al Qaida leadership." Some of the leaflets using this vignette are AFB29P, AFD29P, and a handbill coded AFG06, with the picture reversed.
Although the individual portrayed is not named, he was assumed to be Mullah Omar, the
one-eyed leader of the former Taliban government. Mullah Omar shunned having his photo
taken, perhaps for religious or perhaps for security reasons, and this shrewdness on his
part allegedly led to a photograph of the wrong man appearing on thousands of
Doubt was first raised in the 14 October 2002 issue of Newsweek. In an article entitled, Trouble: Mistaken for the Mullah author Sami Yousafzai says:
Maulvi Hafizullah is hiding in the remote Afghan countryside in fear of his life. ... Mullah Omar was rarely photographed during his time in power, and in a case of mistaken identity, Hafizullah says its his picture - not Omar's - on the hundreds of thousands of leaflets that have been dropped all over Afghanistan offering $25 million for the capture of Omar and Osama bin Laden. Hafizullah fears that thousands of Afghan soldiers and villagers - not to mention
troops - are looking for him. "I'm afraid to leave my house," he told Newsweek. ... His troubles began early this year when he fled to his village in Maidan province after the Talibans collapse. An elderly neighbor approached him, showed him the leaflet and asked if he was in fact Mullah Omar. "I looked at the photo and it was me," says Hafizullah. "Now we are even more proud to know you. U.S.
Other newspaper accounts indicate that Hafizullah is a former protocol officer for the Taliban who has not softened in his opinion of the U. S. He says, I looked at the photo and it was me. The CIA is blind and stupid. An official government spokesman said, We don't know anything about this man. There aren't that many pictures of Mullah Omar around anyway. What this does show is that this kind of poster drop certainly is effective as people are chasing it up on the ground.
What makes this story possibly true is that the
Friendship Leaflet - Horizontal flag error
On November 19, the Army Times reported a new leaflet dropped in Afghanistan. This leaflet displays an American family on the left and an Afghan family on the right. Beneath the American family, a map of the United States is in the form of a flag in red, white and blue. Beneath the Afghan family, a map of Afghanistan is in the black, red and green colors of their national flag. Light-skinned and dark-skinned hands are clasped together at the center of the leaflet beneath the word "Friendship." The back of the leaflet has the following text:
No one should tell you how to live. The Partnership of Nations will help rescue the Afghan people from the Taliban criminals and foreign terrorists.
AFD030b - vertical flag correction
There is no code on the "Friendship" leaflet, but we know from Army
documentation that a leaflet AFD30a exists. 2,540,000 were disseminated by M129 leaflet
bombs up until September 2002.That first "Friendship" leaflet may have a
significant error. Notice that the map of
The Foreign Warriors friend or Foe?
Translations problems can be right even when they are wrong or wrong when they are right or whatever. In May 2008, John D McHugh published an article entitled You build a school, then find propaganda against you for Guardian.co.uk. The author tells of U.S. troops finding anti-American propaganda leaflets in the town of Rabat.
Sir, ACM [insurgent] pamphlets. He had in his hand a little piece of paper about the same size as a dollar bill. Printed in color on both sides with a message written in Pashto and Dari, it looked very professional for insurgent propaganda. The message read: The foreign warriors are killing our Muslims according to the interpreters. Further investigation turned up more leaflets
Outside, the children had been edging closer to the soldiers. One of them had a flier in his pocket, and a soldier asked to see it. This flier was pro-government, showing the Afghan flag and telling the people than the Afghan government army was here to help and protect them. Then things took a turn for the weird side. Both fliers carried identifying codes, and somebody noticed that they were almost identical. So, it appeared the government and insurgents were using the same printing company. It got worse. The interpreters asked the children where each of the leaflets came from. Each time, they got the same answer: the Afghan government army. Then one of the interpreters looked again at the flier. Ah, it says the foreign JIHADIST fighters are killing our Muslims."
There was much discussion of this new and more favorable, if somewhat obtuse, interpretation. If two well-educated interpreters couldn't decipher the flier, how were the farmers and laborers of Rabat supposed to?
I cannot absolutely swear to this one, but two Afghan translators cracked up when they saw the final text in this comic book and said that the words were in the wrong bubble. This is a pro-government comic book meant to enhance the reputation of the new Afghan Army and the soldiers are supposed to be handing the civilians who informed on Taliban bomb-makers their reward. According to the translators instead of the soldiers, the civilians are saying:
This is your baksheesh for providing information about the criminals.
Baksheesh is an interesting subject. In the United States it is generally illegal and considered a bribe. In the Middle East (and much of the rest of the world) it is considered a common courtesy and little gets done without the payment of cash. Wikipedia says about it:
Baksheesh is a term used to describe tipping, charitable giving, and certain forms of political corruption and bribery in the Middle East and South Asia. Leo Deuel sardonically described baksheesh as lavish remuneration and bribes, rudely demanded but ever so graciously accepted by the natives in return for little or no services rendered.
This is an interesting subject and really has nothing to do with the United States military or the 4th PSYOP Group. In fact, God and the Bible have been brought into recent warfare by politicians and commercial interests. We have debated adding this section to the article but I believe it is important.
German Army Belt Buckle
Gott Mit Uns
Even as the British were generating WWI propaganda rumors of German soldiers raping nuns and murdering Belgian babies, the Prussians knew that they were in the right. They only had to look down at their belt buckles that told them God With Us. The early Jews, Russians and Romans also used a similar motto. By WWII, all enlisted men in the German Wehrmacht had Gott Mit Uns on their belt buckle along with an eagle and swastika.
Bob Dylan - With God on Our Side
When the Second World War came to an end
We forgave the Germans and then we were friends
Though they murdered six million in the ovens they fried
The Germans now too have God on their side
Should God and the Bible be used in warfare? This is an interesting question. It turns out that some American Christian leaders seem to feel the need to make Biblical statements and place them on weapons and documents. This is understandable with the history of the Crusades and the numerous Holy wars proclaimed by the early Church and of course the Muslim Jihads. Still, in this time of political correctness and in a nation that prides itself on the separation of Church and State, these strange Biblical sayings and symbols have caused some confusion and possibly even some problems with our non-Christian allies. I leave it to the reader to decide if this is a mistake.
President Bush originally called the operation against terrorism "Infinite Justice." When informed that Islam believed that infinite judgment came from Allah, the name was immediately changed to "Enduring Freedom."
The Secretary of Defense implies that Saddam Hussein is a Foolish Man.
A week after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, President Bush said in an unscripted moment:
This crusade, this war on terrorism, is going to take a while.
There was an immediate uproar from Muslims around the word who still thought of the Crusade as a Christian attack on their faith. Realizing his gaffe, President Bush immediately removed all traces of a religious crusade in his comments on the war on terror.
In 2003, Biblical sayings were placed on the U.S. Department of Defense top secret Worldwide Intelligence Update Military Intelligence Reports. The decision to put the biblical quotations on the cover pages was allegedly taken by Major General Glen Shaffer, a director for intelligence serving both Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Some of the comments with patriotic pictures of American soldiers at war or at prayer were:
Their arrows are sharp, all their bows are strung; their horses hoofs seem like flint, their chariot wheels are like a whirlwind.
Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand.
Commit to the Lord whatever you do, and your plans will succeed.
Pentagon officials were concerned that if the cover sheets were ever made public they could be interpreted as a suggestion that the war was religiously driven; a battle against Islam.
In 2005, the Pentagons inspector general recommended corrective action against Lieutenant General William G. Boykin, the Deputy Under-Secretary of Defense for Intelligence who likened the war against Islamic militants to a battle against Satan.
Is this a Jesus Gun-sight?
Biblical quotations used by Americans were thought to be a dead issue but in February 2011, it was discovered that the same sort of quotations were being placed on some American weapons. U.S. gun-sights were found with inscriptions with biblical references that might lead some to believe that Americans are using Jesus weapons against Muslims in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The inscriptions apparently do not break military rules on proselytizing because the equipment is not distributed beyond the troops who are actually using them. Trijicon makes the sights and their director of sales and marketing told Associated Press:
We dont publicize this. Its not something we make a big deal out of. But yes, its there.
According to an American Broadcasting Corporation report, one of the citations on the gun sights, 2COR4:6, is an apparent reference to Second Corinthians 4:6 of the New Testament, which reads:
For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
Other references include citations from the books of Revelation, Matthew and John dealing with Jesus as the light of the world.
John 8:12, referred to on the gun sights as JN8:12, reads,
Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life
I spoke directly to Trijicon to discover if the government or the military had influenced them to add the symbols. They did not. Their spokesman told me:
We have always placed the scripture references on our optics. It is a tradition started by our founder and we continue it as a reflection of our company values. Although Trijicon has now offered to remove these references for military issued products, we will continue to inscribe our consumer products with biblical references.
The Company seems to have a strong Christian ethic because at the end of the address block is:
When ye are in service of your fellow beings, ye are only in the service of your God
So, it appears once again that the press has taken a non-story and tried to make a scandal of it. Hopefully, our military understands that the use of Christian symbols on documents or military items is very questionable and certainly does nothing to win trust among the Muslim nations of the world.
Bosnia or Iraq?
The Coalition leaflet IZD7519 has been reported to bear an error. Allegedly the guard post depicted on the front of the leaflet was actually a military guard post in Bosnia. The photograph was featured on the leaflet to Iraq with Arabic text over the photograph. Once the Coalition realized that the photograph was from Bosnia they reportedly stopped disseminating this leaflet. There is no proof to verify this error claim and I have not seen this photograph used on any Bosnian PSYOP, but a soldier who took part in the operation claims he saw the leaflets being shredded by a sergeant of the 8th PSYOP Battalion who told him the story.
Surrender leaflets need to be very clear in their message. One of the problems with standardized surrender leaflets is mentioned in a U.S. military Lessons Learned after-action report on Iraq and Afghanistan. A U.S. Army captain checked an enemy prisoner of war cage and found that most of the individuals were people in civilian clothes who had surrendered because they were confused by leaflets that PSYOP had dropped on the city and believed that the Americans wanted them to come out of their homes and surrender. It appears that if you only want military prisoners, you need to clearly say military somewhere on the leaflet.
During WWI and WWII when the world was at war and the enemy was hated and vilified, there was little thought of the legal ramifications of photographs or images depicted on propaganda leaflets. In the modern days of undeclared small wars and police actions, people are more critical and the military has to be on guard against litigation from the copyright holders of images. The following three leaflets are all cases where problematic legality and possible copyright infringement made the leaflets questionable.
This is not so much a mistake as a misjudgment or miscalculation on the part of the
There is an interesting story about the Iraqi family depicted on this leaflet. It may or may not be true, but allegedly the family first agreed to be photographed having no realization that their pictures would appear on millions of propaganda leaflets. After the leaflet drops, when they discovered that their picture appeared on numerous leaflets such as IZD022, IZD022a, IZD022b, and IZD023, they apparently put in a financial claim for a million dollars or some such fee to be paid by the United States government for the use of their image, their loss of privacy, and probably the danger they found themselves in due to their appearing to be helping the Allied cause.
Although most of the leaflets depict the family in a much-reduced photograph in the upper right or lower left corner, IZD023 features the family in close-up over the entire leaflet in full color. The picture is very clear and the father could certainly be identified from this photograph. It is easy to see why he is unhappy.
Accordingly, these leaflets are supposed to be a bit scarcer because after a short
period of dissemination they were removed from stock and destroyed. I heard this story at
A second explanation for the destruction of the leaflets was told to me by a USAF Technical Sergeant who says:
While attending the Joint Psychological Operations Course at the
Joint Special Operations Universityat , the class was informed that the leaflet was destroyed for copyright violation. The family was actually living in the Hurlburt Field, Florida , possibly not even of Arab descent. The father figure pictured was a semi-professional photographer, who had posted the image on the World Wide Web. Use of the image without permission of the owner was a violation of copyright. While discussion of the cost of reproduction did occur in the class, it was not made clear whether the photographer had actually asked for the money, or had simply asked that the image not be used. U.S.
So, although we are not sure exactly what went wrong with this leaflet, it does seem clear that it was withdrawn and destroyed.
Before leaving this item it is worth noting that the Australian PSYOP unit in
Leaflet IZD-019 shows a group of Iraqi soldiers standing in line wearing gasmasks and full protective gear. A mushroom shaped fireball is in the background. The symbol for biological hazard is at the lower left. The text is:
Do not use weapons of mass destruction.
The back is all text:
Any unit that chooses to use weapons of mass destruction will face swift and severe retribution by Coalition forces. Unit commanders will be held accountable if weapons of mass destruction are used.
The Original Photograph
The depiction of an explosion on this leaflet was taken from the photograph of an explosive thermal decomposition of a peroxidizable compound originally taken by Explosive and Reactive Chemical Specialist Thomas Gundlach in the early 1980s. It appears on his website www.rhr-inc.com.
It is interesting to note that the 4th PSYOP Group discussed the ethics of using this picture in one of their legal briefings. They point out that the use of this photo could be considered copyright infringement because of use without authorization, the image was altered, and the original photographer was not credited. However, there was no infringement because the owner of the copyright gave permission for the photographs use.
Ranger Calling Card Leaflet "Freedom Endures"
On 20 October 2002, two hundred elite American Rangers and four PSYOP soldiers
night-assaulted Objective Rhino on Vengeance Drop Zone in
Ranger Calling Card Leaflet on Rucksack
The leaflet was depicted in a Discovery Channel TV documentary entitled Commando Solo Afghan Skies. It was attached to a soldiers rucksack and was identified as a Calling Card. One of the Rangers who took part in the mission said:
The Fireman leaflets were actually attached to the kit bags that we left behind on the drop zone for the locals to police up. To the best of my knowledge every Ranger that was on that jump had one.
The leaflet is mentioned again in the 2005 book One Bullet Away the Making of
a Marine Officer, by Nathaniel Fick, Houghton Mifflin Co.,
Once again there is some question as to the legality of using the image on the leaflet.
The original Flag Raising at Ground Zero photograph was taken by Thomas E.
Franklin and published in The Record of
Sometimes problems occur because the reader does not understand the meaning of a leaflet. An example is mentioned by Captain Charles L. Pritchard Jr. of the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division. At one stage of Operation Iraqi Freedom Captain Pritchard entered an enemy prisoner of war cage only to discover that most of the prisoners were people in civilian clothes who had surrendered because they were confused by PSYOP surrender leaflets and believed that the Americans wanted them all to come out of their homes and give themselves up.
The Eyes have it
No matter where you run, no matter where you hide,
Coalition Special Operations Forces will find you and bring you to justice
During Operation Iraqi Freedom the Coalition printed an entire series of leaflets
showing two eyes on the front and various text or scenes on the back. As the war went on,
the eyes became more sinister. These leaflets were meant to terrify the insurgents and
show them that they were under surveillance all the time by agents, snipers and
satellites. According to a Rand National Defense Research Institute study entitled
A message that offended its recipients shows a coalition PSYOP leaflet dropped to intimidate insurgents in
. However, this airdropped leaflet did not just reach insurgents; it also reached noncombatants. And, while its message implies that insurgents deserve to be brought to justice, in cultural fact, it gave everyone who picked it up the Evil Eye. Iraq
That Candy will cost you a Beating!
Sometimes operations are not really mistakes, but they lead to more harm than good.
Everybody loves candy. It is sweet and makes you feel good. It has often been used in
PSYOP campaigns to win the friendship of both children and adults. American soldiers will
always give chocolate to young children and have done so in every conflict since WWII. A
Allah hand towel
In 2009, we first heard of a strange 12 x 30-inch hand towel that was produced with a PSYOP message to win the hearts and minds of the Iraqi people. The text is:
God (Allah) is great
We all (heart)
God (Allah) is great
Unfortunately, no one realized that a religious Muslim would not wash himself with a towel that has Allah written on it! As a result, they were discarded by the very people the Coalition wished to impress and used only by non-Muslims. I suspect the idea of someone wiping their butt with the name of Allah was rather insulting, as would be wiping ones privates with a towel inscribed Jesus would be to a Christian. The campaign occurred about 2008-2009 and was quickly and quietly ended.
Iraqi Flag Gummed Label
It was not just the Allah that was a problem. Apparently the symbolism with the heart was also troublesome. This vignette was inspired by the famous I Love New York slogan with the heart where the word love should be. This 6.5 x 4.5-inch gummed sticker shows a modified Iraqi flag and the text:
We all love Iraq
In the past, I often noticed tourists to New York City confused by the symbolism of the heart in the center of the text. Eventually, the phrase got so popular and was placed on so many items (cups, towels, etc.) that most people recognized the meaning of the statement. The heart meant love. When the symbol was later used in Iraq it was thought that the target audience would understand the meaning of the message, but that may be incorrect. I was told by a PSYOP veteran of the war that:
There was a campaign in Iraq with stickers that said We all love IRAQ, with love depicted as a heart. In 2005, just after the election, the symbolism was attacked by Al Jazeera and local newspaper editorial cartoons to illustrate and mock the confusion created by the heart symbol. This confusion was capitalized by Arabic media sources with different possible meanings for the symbol, such as; the heart means We club Iraq, We spade Iraq, We own Iraq, etc. The lesson learned was not to use American symbols on propaganda to the indigenous population. The saying began to mean We all AMERICAN Iraq, and took away from the intended message of all tribes coming together for a united Iraq. Our interpreters told us about the news reports and criticisms. We tacked the stories to the wall of the Tactical Team Office as a reminder.
What the Hell does that mean?
In another entry above we illustrate an obvious propaganda error where the Iraqis in order to gain sympathy printed the words Milk Factory in English on a bombed building. This sort of error can occur easily, as the propagandist thinks in his own language and uses word that he knows, but the target audience does not. An example is two Iraqi Freedom leaflets coded IZD045 and IZD045a. Both of these leaflets depict an Iraqi boat dropping mines on the front with the warning that any boat found laying mines will be attacked and destroyed. The back of both leaflets depict a burning ship and bags on the seabed below marked FOOD in English. Three problems with that scenario: First of all, the obvious message is that the boats on the back have been destroyed by the Coalition as promised on the front. However, that is not the case. They are apparently supply ships bringing food to the Iraqi people that hit their own mine. That is very confusing.
Secondly, The text on the back of the leaflet says:
Mining the Kor Abd Allah or Umm Qasar waterways will not affect Coalition vessels. They will only hurt the Iraqi people.
If I was an Iraqi reading that leaflet I would wonder if the mines are not a threat to the invaders, why do they want it stopped? That seems to make no sense.
Third, why are the bags marked food in English rather than Arabic? Did some propagandist think they would recognize the English word? That is something that should have been corrected before dissemination. One propagandist told me:
>I've seen this exact error before, though it was corrected in the approval process.
So, although this is an attractive leaflet with a good image and color, the text seems to be a mixed and confusing message. Apparently it was air-dropped because the U.S. Armys Products Disseminated by the Psychological Operations Task Force as of 7 April 2003 lists both leaflets.
Colonel Gaddafis Orders
Civil War erupted in Libya on 15 February 2011. The situation began as a series of peaceful protests. On the evening of 15 February, between 500 and 600 demonstrators protested in front of the police headquarters in Benghazi. The protest was broken up violently by police, resulting in 38 injured. The fighting increased in fury until 19 March 2011 when a multi-state coalition began a military intervention in Libya to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. As part of the NATO PSYOP mission, numerous leaflets were dropped over the Libyan government troops. One depicted Gaddafi at the right and Libyan citizens near a bomb blast at the left. The text is:
Colonel Gaddafis orders to attack civilians are illegal and as a result he has been indicted by the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity.
The leaflet has a problem. It is wrong. At the time of dissemination Gaddafi had not been indicted. The prosecutor has requested an indictment, which is issued by a panel of judges, but at the time the leaflet was dropped no such indictment had been brought forward. It is a well-known fact that propaganda leaflets that are not truthful lose credibility for the issuing force. NATO needs to do a better job of vetting its text before placing such messages on leaflets.
Loudspeaker Humvees in front of Papal Nunciatura
As long as we are on the subject of PSYOP mistakes, I would be remiss if I did not mention some of the mistakes that the radio and television press have committed during recent conflicts. The most famous blunder occurred in December 1989 when TV broadcasters all over the world reported that American PSYOP troops were playing loud "rock and roll" music outside the Papal Nunciatura in Panama in an attempt to drive General Noreiga from the Vatican grounds where he had claimed sanctuary.
The press loved this story. Every anchor-person commented on it, and there were arguments about whether or not the United States was playing fair. Is "rock and roll" a cruel and unusual punishment? Diplomats, Catholics, and Vatican officials deplored the practice as a clumsy effort to harass Noriega that inflicted needless stress upon the papal nuncio and his staff.
The Washington Post News Service said, "With U.S. troops at the Vatican embassy continuing to wage psychological warfare against Noriega by blaring rock music over loudspeakers and greeting him with a hearty "Gooood Morning Panama," the general's small circle of supporters shrank further ."
Setting up more loudspeakers at Papal Nunciatura
Newsday critic Marvin Kitman said, "During the following days, what is surely the most ridiculous psychological operation in U.S. history took place outside the embassy. High-power loudspeakers blasted rock music at the building."
An unsigned article entitled "Radio Noriega, or the Many Moods of Manny," added, "Down in Panama, outside the Vatican embassy, the U.S. Southern Command -- armed to the teeth and encircling the whole compound -- is licking its chops. Manuel Noriega is inside. United States forces have heard that he is superstitious, that he wears red underpants to ward off evil demons. And so, to irritate and intimidate him (and to enjoy themselves in the process), the Americans set up their "ghetto blasters" or some Latin American equivalent, and blast the Vatican embassy with some good ol kickass American rock n roll Guns n Roses, Welcome to the Jungle is the first song to come roaring through the speakers."
The criticism became so vehement that President Bush had Secretary Powell contact the Panama commanders to find out why the music was being used. Powell eventually ordered the music stopped. It was not that the campaign was unsuccessful; it was just embarrassing to the United States.
Of course, the music was never meant to drive Noreiga out. In fact, it was meant to block the use of parabolic microphones by the hundreds of press outside the building hoping to hear the secret negotiations between General Cisneros and Papal Nuncio Monsignor Laboa. Noreiga did eventually leave the Vatican grounds and surrender to United States forces, so all's well that ends well.
The second misguided story broke more recently on 18 August 2003. Newspapers all over the world printed a story that American 4th Infantry Division troops in Tikrit (Saddam's hometown) were about to post altered photographs of Saddam Hussein's face superimposed on the bodies of Veronica Lake, Zsa Zsa Gabor, Rita Hayworth, Elvis Presley, and Billy Idol.
LTC Steve Russell of the 1st Battalion, 22nd Regiment said, "Most of the locals will love them and they'll be laughing, but the bad boys are going to be upset, which will just make it easier for us to know who they are." The humorous images were depicted on the television news, and once again commentators argued about the correctness and value of such a plan. The story grew to such proportions that I was called by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation for an interview on the subject. I told the host that he had a non-story. The officer with the plan was not trained in psychological operations. He was an infantry commander. He had a fertile imagination and a desire to succeed, but higher headquarters would not approve the plan and none of it was going to happen. It was just an unofficial bit of propaganda thought up by a local commander and it as we say in the military; it was a "no-go."
The radio host was not happy with my statement and told me that he had scheduled four minutes for the interview. I advised him to select another subject quickly, because this one was going nowhere. Curiously, Canada has not called me since! The press is much happier when you lie to them!
On occasion the insurgent Muslim forces attempt to smear their enemy by showing propaganda pictures of crying women in the throes of grief due to some barbaric act by their opposition. The press, in its ignorance, rushes to print these photographs although even a few seconds of study would generally prove how false they are.
There are two infamous photographs from the Israeli-Lebanon conflict where the same crying woman appeared in two totally different scenes. Hezbollah obviously took her from bombed building to bombed building preparing heart-breaking photographs of her alleged grief. Of course, the newspapers jumped at the photographs.
These bullets were fired?
It worked once, so why not try it again? The caption for this first photograph from
Never poop on a Landmine
Sometimes Americans have to be careful with the images that they use on leaflets. The
leaflet above shows a young boy studying a mine and the text warns him to stay far away
from such things. It is a fairly standard Western image and most of us would understand
from the big X that it is a warning not to approach explosives on the ground.
The anti-mine image was placed on both leaflets and T-shirts. In is standard procedure to
show PSYOP images and text to the local inhabitants to acquire feedback on how the message
is perceived. An interesting anecdote was told about this image by Lieutenant-Colonel
Ayers who oversaw the landmine awareness program in
In our mind's eye, it said don't poke a landmine with a stick. But when we tested it, the Khmer villagers said, Why do you have this person defecating over a landmine? The kid was in a position that they typically use for a bowel movement. We had to pull the boy back a little bit and make changes based upon what we found.
It may seem that I am attacking the sloppiness of PSYOP specialists in this article. Nothing could be further from the truth. The reality is that if we point out two or three errors committed during WWII that is out of many thousands of different leaflets. If the best we can do is point out a half dozen that contained minor errors from close to 100,000 leaflets, that is a pretty good record. Besides, as any military person knows, you learn more from the "lessons learned" after a mistake than you ever learn when things are perfect.
Think of the campaigns that never got off the ground. In WWII there was a plan to drop bats from B-29 bombers over Tokyo with incendiaries tied to their bodies. The bats would fly into the eaves of Japanese wood and paper houses and the incendiaries would explode, burning the homes to the ground. In reality, a bat dropped from 20,000 feet would probably hit the ground like a frozen stone.
You wanted to paint what?
Another plan recommended by the OSS for China was for partisans to spray a fecal smelling fluid on the back of the pants of Japanese officers. The officer would be so shamed and lose "face" that he would be forced to commit immediate seppuku (belly splitting). The plan never came to fruition. The same plan was studied in a 1944 project, called Who Me? The idea was for French resistance fighters to use foil tubes packed with chemicals that produced a fecal odor on the Germans. The plan never came to fruition because: It was found that people in many areas of the world do not find fecal odor to be offensive. Apparently there would be no German suicides either.
The craziest plan came to light after the OSS had their in-house psychologists do a long-range psychoanalysis of Adolf Hitler. They determined that Hitler had sexual perversions and the way to win WWII was to drop a bomber-load of pornography over the Wolf's Lair. The Führer would come out for his morning walk, be surrounded by photographs of naked woman and immediately go insane. It is rumored that this plan went all the way to Air Force headquarters, where the commander blew his top and refused to risk a bomber on such a silly stunt.
Soccer Balls - Look out below!
As recent as the American intervention in Haiti the military developed a plan to win the friendship of the local people by dropping soccer balls from helicopters to children below. It is alleged that the CIA bought 1,030 soccer balls, painted with crossed Haitian and American flags on each, and planned to air drop them over Port au Prince before the invasion. Somebody apparently did the math on the weight of a soccer ball falling at high speed from the sky and that plan was quickly dumped. Do you remember that classic line from "WKRP Cincinnati" when the station owner Mr. Carlson dropped Thanksgiving turkeys on terrified bystanders and later said:
As God is my witness, I thought turkeys could fly.
Soccer Balls for Afghanistan
During Operation Enduring Freedom the idea of dropping soccer balls was revived. In
2008, American troops obtained colorful soccer balls that were dropped from
low-flying Blackhawk helicopters to gain the trust and friendship of Afghan children.
There were three different styles of soccer balls and one depicted the flags of many
Coalition nations to show their strength and Commitment to the new nation of
Aviators hold some of the donated soccer balls
After I wrote the above paragraph, an Afghan Veteran wrote to tell me that PSYOP was not to blame for the mistake. He said:
That was not a PSYOP product or a PSYOP unit involved. What happened was some members of an Aviation unit thought it would be a good idea to drop balls to these isolated villages they flew over all the time. They apparently requested those balls from family/friends in the states that sent them out. They dropped them and that was picked up by enemy propaganda and they really pushed the story. Many of the illiterate villages could have cared less about the flag, and would be lucky to know what it was. However it spread through the internet and other means and became quite a problem, even if it was a manufactured one. I had to deal with the ramifications of that incident hundreds of miles away.
All the Volley balls and soccer balls we have are checked to make sure there is nothing which could cause the above problem. For instance, the Afghan flag has a similar saying in the crest at the center. Any PSYOP products which could be assumed to come in contact with the ground have this crest removed or blurred. We worked to make sure that didnt happen.
So, apparently this PSYOP problem, like the Sexy Saddam problem mentioned above, were both caused by regular combat troops trying to delve into PSYOP without an understanding of the ramifications of their actions.
Staff Sergeant Jack Lewis mentions giving away soccer balls in Iraq in Nothing in Reserve: true stories, not war stories, Kindle Edition, 2011:
I whiled away the rest of our on-station time by rationing out what wampum I had brought alongcandy and school supplies, mostly, leavened by the occasional precious soccer ballto kids who would come by to wave and grin at us. We gave out Crayolas and little plastic backpacks and erasers, but no pencils. Pencils could be weapons.
Bill Putnam talks about the Iraqi love of soccer in Tales from the Tigris, Kindle Edition, 2012. Bill headed an Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) Cell that produced a report for American officials entitled Whats the Word on the Streets of Baghdad? This soccer anecdote is not a mistake as much as a missed opportunity. Bill believes that the United States could have made some powerful Iraqi friends if it had supported the Iraqi soccer team, or at least showed that the top American military people were fans. He says in part:
There is only one real sport in Iraq and that is soccer, and anyone who wants to better understand the Iraqi people needs to grasp this. We could earn a lot of good will with the Iraqi population by simply placing a bumper sticker yes, a bumper sticker on U.S. military and civilian vehicles that said, in Arabic, We support Iraqi Soccer (or words similar). He worked the problem up the chain of command, but in the end, the signs were never made and we will never know what effect they might have had
However, despite soccers obvious popularity in Iraq, the Coalition failed to use soccer in a concerted campaign to build bridges between it and the Iraqi people. The mens senior coach for the Iraqi national team constantly criticized the Coalition for failing to provide any help to the team as far as equipment or anything else was concerned
In January 2004, I wrote a point paper for a senior Combined Task Force Seven officer about how the Coalition could use soccer to build inroads with the Iraqi people. I queried my Iraqi linguists about how they would feel seeing U.S. and other Coalition vehicles with stickers in Arabic saying, We support Iraqi soccer, or Bring the Asian Cup to Baghdad. They responded that this would be an excellent idea for improving Iraqi-Coalition relations. They also told me they would be quite angered if a Coalition vehicle with a pro-Iraq soccer sticker was attacked.
It was all for naught. Nobody in the United States military hierarchy had any interest in Iraqi soccer.
Spc. Jessica Stephenson, a psyop Soldier assigned to the 362nd PSYOP Company, gives a soccer ball to a youngster during a humanitarian mission to southern
villages on August 17, 2004. A much better way to distribute them. Afghanistan
Where do these ideas come from? I asked one of the top PSYOP people that very question many years ago. He told me that he would let his concept people come up with 100 crazy ideas rather than stifle their imagination and perhaps never hear that one winner that might turn a battle...or a war.
This has been a look at some of the problems that can occur in a psychological operations campaign. It is clear that proper translation and use of the correct terminology is crucial. We also see that the psywarrior must think with the mind of the target audience, and realize that things he believes as gospel are not necessarily believed by the enemy. The use of enemy nationals or prisoners of war to vet the propaganda is paramount, but even there one must be careful because many of those questioned will try to please their interrogator and tell them what they believe he wants to hear. It is important to test a wide spectrum of the target audience and do it in such a neutral environment that they cannot read the interrogator and attempt deduce the desired response. In PSYOP, truth is the most powerful tool. It leads directly to credibility. When the propaganda message contains an error that immediately identifies it as enemy, all credibility is lost. It can be very difficult to regain.
Readers who know of other such mistakes and errors that they feel should be added to this article are encouraged to write to the author at firstname.lastname@example.org.
© 20 January 2004