OWI PACIFIC PSYOP
SIX DECADES AGO
SGM Herbert A. Friedman (Ret.)
Principals of Propaganda
One of the better lectures during the training course was on the general principals of propaganda. There is some repetition from earlier lectures, but the speaker made some interesting point. He says that the best method of building an audience is performing a service for your listeners or readers. To have maximum effect you must have an established reputation for accuracy and truthfulness. Never say anything that will diminish or destroy your reputation for accuracy and credibility. The long-term consequences of deceit are disastrous. On the other hand, although we tell the truth, we do not necessarily tell the whole truth. We are deliberately selective. All wartime propaganda serves the military action. Any propaganda that is not coordinated with military action is wasted. All wartime propaganda aims ultimately at inducing action. In the case of
, we want to induce surrender in the field and confusion or revolt at home. Japan
A propagandist faces physical, moral and intellectual hardships in the field. This is not a job for the faint hearted. Psychological warfare means struggling with men's minds. The way to a man's mind is via his emotions. You have four basic emotions to play upon; love, hate, hope, and fear. We stress four propaganda themes.
1. Victory is certain. This theme plays on hope. It plays on hate of the Japanese by the occupied peoples. The Japanese are now discovering that you cannot maintain an aggressive line of propaganda in a war that you are losing.
2. The Unity and Strength of the United Nations. It is a means of reinforcing the certainty of victory.
Leaflet 2094 conveys to the Japanese what Unconditional Surrender would mean to them. The leaders of
Japanhad used the term to motivate the people to fight on, telling them that they would be disgraced and the Emperor would be humiliated should lose the war. It became a powerful psychological weapon for the militarists. The text on the OWI leaflet was from a speech by President Harry S. Truman. The image on the front is interesting because instead of the usual American weapons of war, it displays Japanese weapons; what appears to be a Mitsubishi G4M Betty bomber, a Japanese tank, artillery piece and truck. At the right is President Harry S. Truman. The text on the front is: Japan
Unconditional Surrender means Simply the Laying down of Arms
Harry S. Truman, President of the United States said in a message to the Japanese people:
Unconditional surrender is a purely military term meaning only the yielding of arms. It does not entail enslavement. It does not entail extermination of the Japanese people. These thoughts have been injected only by your former Premier, General Koiso, as an ignoble device to compel your people to continue a hopeless war.
The back of the leaflet reminds the Japanese people that they were partners with a losing ally who could no longer tie up vast number of American troops in Europe, the leaflet depicts the German surrender signed by of General Gustav Jodl, Army Chief of Staff. OWI records indicate that 200,000 copies of this leaflet were printed. The text to the right of the German surrender is:
surrendered unconditionally to the Allied Forces on 7 May 1945. General Gustav Jodl, Wehrmacht Chief of Staff signed for the Germans. Germany
Smiling German civilians wave white flags of surrender at soldiers of the 94th Infantry Division of the U. S. 3rd Army.
3. The Axis fates are interlinked. We stress that the German and the Japanese leaders think as one and both seek to enslave the world. The defeat of Germans can foretell the defeat of
Leaflet 512 is interesting because it seems to break one of the major prohibitions of propaganda. In general, the propagandist never belittles the enemy. It is counter-productive and causes hostility instead of persuasion among the target audience. This leaflet mentions American military might, but then goes on to point out that the
United Stateshas been fighting with one hand tied behind its back, using only 10% of its strength. I would think that such an argument would infuriate the proud Japanese. The leaflet depicts an American eagle over a nest filled with armaments, military aircraft, artillery pieces and vehicles. The purpose of the leaflet is to remind the Japanese that they were already losing the war, and now with the collapse of Japan , their position is even more hopeless. The text above the Eagle is: Germany
Full Strength Instead of Ten Percent!
The text on the back is:
From December 1941, until
's defeat in 1944, we regarded the war in the pacific as chiefly a diversionary battle and concentrated our forces in the European theater. Even so, we were able to advance everywhere in the pacific at will and to drive exceedingly close to Germany itself. Japan
The war in Europe is now over and for the first time we can concentrate our overwhelming strength on
. We no longer need to divide our forces and supplies. All of our resources, not just ten percent, will be in the battle against you. You failed to stop us earlier. Do you think you can stop us now? Japan
The day of
's defeat draws ever nearer. Japan
The leaflet is in blue and shows Japanese citizens in the iron grip at the top left, and an elderly official being attacked by a Japanese military officer at the lower right. The leaflet was designed to point out to the Japanese people how the militarists had gained control of their country and how this control was going to cause the destruction of the Empire. The leaflet tells of various acts by the military that caused Japans present predicament. The propaganda is long so I will just mention a few excerpts.
The Military has Oppressed you in the Following Manner
In 1931, the military, without sanction of the Emperor and without consulting the Foreign Office, invaded Manchuria.
In 1936, the military attempted, by ordering its stooges, to assassinate Premier Okada, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal Saito, Minister of the Treasury Tokahashi
In the general elections of 1937, the people ignored the wishes of the military and elected 416 members who had no affiliation with the military
In order to seize control of the nation, the military started the China incident .
To cover their failure to conquer China and to strengthen their control, they attacked Pearl Harbor
Only with the defeat of the military clique will you become a free people .
200,000 copies of leaflet 2057 entitled How the Gumbatsu Got Control were printed by the OWI in Honolulu in February 1945. The leaflets were delivered to the 73rd Bomb Wing in late May 1945. The bombers dropped approximately 401,000 leaflets on the Japanese home islands, so we must assume that 2057a was a reprint and that print run made up the additional 200,000+ leaflets.
I received a call from the PBS television show History Detectives in late 2010. They wished to do a segment on this leaflet and asked me to act as a subject matter expert on the Office of War Information and how the propaganda leaflets to Japan were prepared and distributed. I was happy to help, and explained how the OWI worked, how it drew the leaflets in Honolulu and then sent them to Saipan for printing. The television show was broadcast 28 June 2011.
History Detectives Advertisement
4. The Japanese militarists are responsible for the war and
seeks to exploit its colonies and occupied nations. To Japan we say that the ambitions of the militarists caused the war. We adopt a divide and conquer tactic. To the occupied people we tear away Japan 's mask of benevolence and expose their real intentions, to exploit the goods, the labor and the lives of the peoples of the occupied territories. Japan
U. S. Propaganda in the Pacific has gone through three phases.
1. The preparatory phase from
Pearl Harborto the end of 1943. This was the hardest and the least rewarding. But, propaganda is cumulative. We sought to hold the line and build an audience for the future.
2. The anti-climatic phase is associated with developing decisive action, but is preliminary to the final showdown. This phase was from 1944 to early 1945.
3. The climatic stage is just prior to the final victory. It is the phase where we realize the fruition of all our months and years of cumulative work and preparation. In this phase the propagandist throws caution to the wind and for the first time moves out ahead of the events.
The basic objective of all OWI propaganda against
is to induce their unconditional surrender. The speaker discussed the use of propaganda leaflets. He said that the morale of the Japanese officer is high. There is no evidence that he is susceptible to leaflets. The Japanese soldier expects to be tortured if captured so we must stress good treatment. The Japanese soldier still believes in ultimate victory so we must convince him otherwise. He has no realization of the actual status of the war. We need to give him accurate news. All soldiers get homesick, but the Japanese soldier suffers more than most. This is a powerful theme than can be used against him. Most Japanese soldiers have no idea why they are at war. We must tell them. The Japanese realize the importance of Japan to their war effort and this harping on German defeats can lower the Japanese morale. Leaflets should be small, easily read, faultlessly idiomatic, up-to-date, without the word "surrender," illustrated, and not provocative or insulting. Germany
Earlier in this article we pointed out that one of the main missions of the OWI in enemy countries was to destroy morale and their war effort. The writer above mentions morale and we now show a leaflet designed specifically to weaken morale. On the front the Nikko Shrine is depicted. The message on the back is designed to stir up pangs of resentment against the officers, military clique and war in the hearts of the Japanese soldier. The text us:
What are you fighting for?
The autumn is here. In your homeland the leaves are turning to crimson and the rice is being harvested. The summer festival is over and the autumn festival rapidly approaches. The natural beauty of your homeland and the good old days are not easily forgotten.
But now, look at yourself!
You are merely fighting like a robot for avaricious military and financial cliques. Our purpose is to eliminate those cliques and build a new Japan for you. Join us and let's accomplish this purpose.
The data sheet points out that this leaflet is less sentimental than morale leaflet 801 which depicted Japanese children under cherry trees. Joseph Ashby Durham, a radio operator on the escort destroyer USS Roberts who kept a copy of this leaflet wrote on it; This is one of the leaflets dropped over Japan before the last bombing raids. Of course this one came from Guam. If true, that shows that both Saipan and Guam were involved in the dropping of American leaflets. In 2012, an interesting 23 February 1945 letter from the Commander in Chief of U.S. Naval Forces, Pacific Fleet, Admiral Chester Nimitz to a member of the American Nautical Cadets surfaced. In it, Nimitz encourages the cadet to continue studying and ends with Enclosed is a propaganda bill [leaflet] which our big planes drop over Japan. Once again we see that just as the OWI was producing leaflets in Saipan, the Navy Advanced Headquarters was also producing leaflets in Guam.
There are four main uses for leaflets: They are to demoralize the enemy in and behind his lines, to induce surrender, to deprive the enemy of help and cooperation by native peoples, and to carry instructions to native people as to when and how to resist the enemy.
When one wishes to pictorially represent the
United States of America, the Statue of is often chosen. For Liberty Franceit is the . When American OWI propagandists wanted to represent Eiffel Tower Japanand all of its spiritual values, they used . A number of different leaflets depict the holy mountain as the central feature of the vignette. Byron Earhart, a retired professor of Comparative Religion at Western Michigan University, whose field is Japanese religion, and who published a book on the history of Mt. Fuji Mount Fujientitled Mount Fuji: Icon of Japan, The University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, South Carolina, 2011, explains its significance:
At 12,385 feet,
Fujiis the highest mountain in , and has always been revered by Japanese as its most beautiful peak, distinguished for its sacredness. In the earliest collection of Japanese poetry, the eighth century Manyoshu, Japan was praised as our treasure, our tutelary god. From early medieval times, Fuji was one of the most popular subjects in painting. In prehistoric times Fuji s life-giving water provided the holy blessing of fertility. Later the custom of traveling to and climbing Fuji was considered a religious pilgrimage, not only honoring the deities and Buddhas of the mountain, but also improving the character of the individual and strengthening the nation. During the late medieval period, when the capital of Fuji Japanmoved to Edo (present-day Tokyo), more people had an opportunity to view as they traveled along the Fuji Eastern Sea Highway. As Edo grew into a major city with a population of more than a million, , visible from the city, became linked with the busy life of this metropolis. The nineteenth century artists Hokusai and Hiroshige created many colorful woodblock prints of Fuji Fuji, and produced sets of thirty-six or one hundred views of . When these prints reached Europe and Fuji Americain the late nineteenth century they established the international reputation of Fujias the hallmark of . In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as Japan moved from a country of many feudal territories to a modern nation-state, symbols of identity were needed to unify the people. The emperor was the primary rallying point for focusing the people on loyalty to the newly developed state. Fuji was the next most important symbol, with its long history of beauty combined with divinity, linking the people to the land. Both in Japan Japanand abroad, the triangular outline of Fujiis universally recognized as standing for . The form of Japan has graced many Japanese postage stamps, and still appears on Japanese coin and currency. If as Americans, we joke about the soldiers fighting for mom and apple pie, leaflet 114a seems to say that for the Japanese soldier it was mom and Fuji . Except for the picture of the emperor, no other image has represented at the same time the land, people, and state of Japan more effectively than Fuji. Mt. Fuji
Leaflet 101 is a very picturesque photograph of
Mount Fuji, with the image reflected in a lake so that the leaflet can be held upside down and the image is about the same. The leaflet is printed on a light green paper in various shades of blue. It is attractive enough to frame. Its purpose was to stir up pangs of homesickness ad resentment toward their leaders in Japanese troops who are about to be attacked by American forces. These enemy troops have not been attacked yet and therefore are presumably fresh and eager for battle. Therefore, the propaganda is in the form of a mild suggestion rather than a direct forceful statement. The text on the back is:
Now is the season of beauty in your homeland and the glorious snow-capped
beckons to the traveler and the visitor. Your parents and wives await you and your dear children wonder whether they will ever see you again. peakof Mount Fuji
But you are here on a miserable island, awaiting our overwhelming force of men and machines. Your military leaders grow fat at home as they continue to mislead your people. They enjoy the beauties of the season and the thrilling sight of
Mount Fuji. Their children eat with them and bask in their love.
Leaflet 114a depicts a Japanese mother and child in the forefront, dead Japanese soldiers behind her with what appears to be cherry blossoms, and the towering presence of
in the background. Surprisingly, the leaflet is in black and white. One might expect such a picturesque scene to be in full color. The text is: Mt. Fuji
YOUR REAL GOAL
The question is whether or not the policy of aggression which the militarists took for the happiness and prosperity of the Japanese people has backfired. Although wars are supposed to bring happiness to the people, the more you fight the more unhappy you are. What is the meaning of this war, which continues to destroy your homeland? To die in battle for the cause of making your people unhappy is obstinate and foolish.
Now is the time to bring strong reason into play. Deliver your homeland. Deliver your compatriots who unwittingly seek the path of annihilation. Moreover, think profoundly of saving the lives of your comrades who are uselessly committing suicide and wasting lives that they should revere.
Earhart says about this leaflet in The Asian-Pacific Journal Japan Focus:
One leaflet combines the theme of homesickness with fear, a picture set against the backdrop of cherry blossoms and Fuji, with a Japanese mother and child in the forefront, and dead Japanese soldiers behind this pair. Americans have joked that WWII GIs fought for the homespun values of "mom and apple pie." This leaflet seems to appeal to the Japanese values of "mom and Fuji."
Leaflet 1049 has the exact same black and white illustration of the woman with baby in front of Mt. Fuji. The back has a long message meant to encourage the Japanese Wake Island garrison to surrender. It is in the form of a letter from a Japanese prisoner of war. Some of the text is:
A Comrade's Cry
Like you, I have eaten seaweed. I know how weeds taste. I have been exposed to bombing and shelling. I escaped from an isolated island in the MARSHALLS where I suffered the worst tortures of starvation and despair. As a result of the kindness of the Americans, which was greater than you can imagine, I made a complete recovery although I had been just a step this side of death.
Now, even though I am a prisoner of war, I spend the nights and days without feeling any discomfort. However, even now, while I am receiving this fine treatment, I cannot help feeling uneasy when I picture to myself the sight of you recklessly throwing away your precious lives by starvation on an isolated island....
The United States Army Psychological Warfare Branch in the Philippines also produced a number of leaflets that depicted Mt. Fuji. For instance, leaflets 5-J-8 and 7-J-8 were prepared by the Eighth Army G2 (Intelligence) on 2 February 1945. They depict a drawing of cherry blossoms to the left of Mt. Fuji in red ink on the front. Leaflet 5-J-8 was designed to be dropped before U.S. troops landed on the southern islands and meant to produce nostalgia by presenting pictures of Japanese home life. The leaflet is entitled Mt. Fuji. Some of the text is:
Japanese soldiers in the Philippines. What hope victory?
We feel sorry for you. Your leaders do not tell the truth. They have not told you that we control the strategic islands in the Northern Philippines.
Have you been told that Americans control Luzon; that our fleet is operating in your home waters; our bombers are over Japan every other day; you have lost 78 leading admirals and that the Allies are approaching Berlin?
Your wild eagles cannot fly to you, or your ships supply you with food and medicine. You have given your best in the past. Why should the children of the Land of the Sun be forced to live in darkness?
In your homeland the plum and cherry trees will soon be budding, ready to bring forth their dazzling beauty. Your children should be playing beneath this beauty with you lying contentedly by sipping sake, and listening to their laughter.
Look at the picture now. Your families have heavy hearts, living terrified of the winged giants that tear apart your war industries, and you, existing in a land where even the inhabitants kill your comrades.
When we land on the islands what hope have you of victory? None! Of life? All.
The back of leaflet 7-J-8 is all text and entitled Blossom time. The text is:
It will soon be cherry blossom time in Japan. How beautiful it must be! After looking at the jungle vegetation for so many months, to see the graceful cherry tree would be like being reborn.
We Americans appreciate beauty and know what you are missing. In our capital, Washing, thousands of Americans go every year to see the Japanese cherry blossoms, a one-time symbol of peace between our two great nations.
Brave soldiers of Japan, do not throw away your lives in vain. Live to feast your eyes once again on those beautiful blossoms in a peaceful and prosperous Japan. Live!
Professor Earhart adds:
The tie to Washington and cherry blossoms is a nice sentimental touch. Once I ran into a little pamphlet about how the cherry trees in Washington were cut down during the war as a way of spiting the treacherous Japanese; then when the two nations became friendly after the war, cherry trees were planted again. One of the interesting aspects of Fuji is how it was a symbol of the enemy and war, and then a badge of peace. The cherry trees, too, seem to have been a gift of friendship, then a sign of betrayal, and later renewed amity.
The same unit produced a second leaflet coded 10-J-8 that depicted a Cherry tree to the right of Mt Fuji all in green ink on the front. It was dated 5 March 1945 and designed for Japanese ground forces in Visayans & Mindanao. The leaflet was entitled Self decision. The text was written by members of the Eighth Army Translator and Interpreter Section ATIS) and then tested and improved by Japanese prisoners of war. Some of the text is:
To the Courageous Men of the Japanese Army
At present your fate is becoming acute. It is up to you, individually, to decide whether you die a miserable death, take refuge in the mountains, get infected by disease and face starvation, or live a long life for the future of Japan.
The bloody battlefields of New Guinea, Saipan and Leyte have ended. The losing battle of Luzon the Philippine Islands decisive battlefield is in the determining stage. The promises of your officers have been completely destroyed. The ambitions promises of the future are just a dream. What has happened to the Japan that was exercising overwhelming power in the pacific?
In the past, a great number of men have died in fruitless battles. On the other hand, many are temporary prisoners of war awaiting peace with the progressive idea of constructing a new Japan
It has become impossible for your officers to faithfully guide and assist you. The Japanese Army, Navy and Air Force have deserted you. Consequently, routes that supply you with rations, materials and reinforcements have been severed. You are in a pitiful position with no means of withdrawal.
Why are you holding your ground, with no hope of victory, depriving yourself of the glory of living? Why must you die a pitiful death? At this very moment you may make an honorable decision of which course you choose to follow. Hesitation in the end means death.
Portion of leaflet 32-J-6 Depicting Mt. Kaguyama
Fuji was not the only mountain used as a theme in propaganda leaflets. I have seen two that mentioned Mt. Kaguyama. Leaflet 32-J-6 was produced by the Sixth Army and shows a thin line drawing of Mt. Kaguyama in black ink on the front. The mountain is often called "Heavenly Kaguyama" in Japanese writing and in mythology fell directly from Heaven. The leaflet is entitled Nostalgic poems. The text is:
From birth to death, each New Year brings us one step nearer the grave.
The herbs sent to me are at my side, reminding me of home and the snow on KAGUYAMA.
Professor Earhart says:
Kaguyama, (Mount Kagu) is a mountain near Nara, the ancient capital of Japan, and is linked to the (legendary) Emperor Jimmu (or Jinmu).
The battle for Wake Island was also a major PSYOP theme. Some of the leaflets aimed at demoralizing the Japanese Wake Island garrison are 1040, 1045, 1048, 1051, 1054, 1056, 1057, and 1058. Other islands are regularly mentioned too. For example, the Marshall Islands are cited in leaflets 1032 and 1035, Iwo Jima in leaflets 1037 and 1038, and Okinawa in leaflets 131, 416, 535, 536, 1027, 1050, 1055 and 2079.
A television reporter from the
Leaflet 536 depicts a bomb falling toward what the leaflet data sheet calls a Japanese city." Further research indicates that in reality this was a photograph from a bomb bay camera in a TBF-1 Avenger from the USS Aircraft Carrier Essex dropping a bomb over the Pasig River in downtown Manila, Luzon, Philippines, 14 November 1944. The bomb appears to be aimed at the Intramuros or Walled City where the Japanese withdrew to for their last stand in Manila. The leaflet discusses the eminent disaster facing Japan and the hopelessness of the troops position. Clearly the Americans used this photograph from the Philippines on leaflets targeting Japanese soldiers on lonely bypassed islands. The back of the leaflet depicts Japanese prisoners in American camps. The text on the back is:
Far from being killed In a Certain Prison Camp in America
The war has reached a high pitch. It has reached a point where the U.S. forces move on relentlessly wherever they choose to go. The inner South Seas, Okinawa, and the Philippines are under the control of the American forces. The Americans attack with superior weapons and explosives. It is clear that they are contemplating landing operations on the mainland of Japan. This will be carried out in the near future.
In spite of being isolated on this small island, and suffering from lack of food, you will either resist fiercely or attempt suicide at the last moment. However, think this matter over calmly.
Your motherland is facing imminent disaster due to the war brought on by your military leaders who think only of their own glory. The people live in fear of air-raids and are threatened by starvation. This is the result of the challenge to the United States by your military leaders who overestimated their own strength and who are forcing you to go to the front. Even while you are fighting all odds on this lonely island in the northern seas, you are not able to stop dreaming of going back to your homeland someday.
However, this dream cannot be realized while you are being driven by your rash superior officers. How can you realize your dreams? It can be done by shaking hands with the U.S. forces.
Leaflet 2079 depicts
Naha City of
The back of the leaflet depicts a B-17 bomber attacking railroad yards and surrounding buildings. The text is:
BEFORE FALLING SEEK THE ASSISTANCE OF YOUR CANE!
The bombing so far has destroyed only a small part of the Japanese industry. However, as time goes on the degree of destruction will be multiplied and
will become a ruin. It is not loyal to your country to sit and watch its destruction without doing anything. That is an attitude taken by cowardly persons. Japan
Save your country! Stop resistance! Seek the assistance of your cane before falling!
The same photograph of Naha City before and after the bombing appears on leaflet 131. This leaflet is aimed at islands held by the Japanese and seeks to destroy their morale. On that second leaflet, the back is all text. The text on the front of leaflet 131 is:
The City of Naha Before and after Bombing.
The back has a very long message so I will only translate a small part:
I have also seen this leaflet printed on a bright yellow paper that would stand out well on the ground after a bombing.
Curiously, the Japanese, in a complete act of denial told their people that although they lost the island, Okinawa was a victory. A G2 Intelligence Report dated 6 August 1945 says that Tokyo radio broadcast on 25 July 1945:
If we quickly analyze the whole course of the Okinawa operation we find that it was a victory It was a great wound to America to have suffered a big blow at Okinawa to the center of her front-line power. Thus we can point out that besides the physical war results, that we can count as invisible results such things as having caused the enemy to be scared of our Special Attack Corps [Kamikaze], thus it can be said that the Okinawa operation was a big operational victory.
Months prior to the attack, General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Commander of the
This propaganda section contacted the commanders of all important organizations
prior to the invasion to explain what they needed and what they could accomplish. They
devoted over three months to this selling and planning phase. Leaflet drop demonstrations
were held near Tenth Army Headquarters in
Nine themes were designed for the
1. Cite lies of Japanese leaders.
2. Create dissension and friction.
3. Play up American industrial might.
4. Create a feeling of panic and terror.
5. Appeal to physical needs.
6. Show the futility of self destruction.
7. Appeal indirectly for surrender.
8. Appeal to authority and respect for law.
9. Appeal to non-Japanese combatants.
Certain subjects were taboo. Just before embarkation a final meeting
with the Combat Team was called to discuss policy. They would be no horror
leaflets (scenes of horribly mangled or disfigured dead or wounded Japanese soldiers) and
no leaflets would make grandiose promises that could not be fulfilled. They would not
speak ill of the Emperor or attack Japanese legends like Admiral
95% of all the leaflets were printed aboard the ships of the invasion fleet; the other 5% were printed onshore by the topographic reproduction units of the 24th Corps and third Amphibious Corps. They were hand-written by a Nisei, then produced in lots of about 50,000, bundled and sent to be dropped by tactical aircraft flying from the newly captured Kadena AFB. The first hand-written tactical leaflet to Okinawan civilians said in part:
Those of you who wish to enter the American occupied area may do so during day in safety. Do not enter the American occupied area or loiter near it at night because we fear that you will be mistaken for a Japanese soldier.
A week later a second tactical leaflet was written that said in part:
If you move along with the Japanese forces, or if you aid the Japanese forces, you will receive the same treatment as the Japanese forces.
Eight leaflets were prepared in all. The final one said in part:
Come out of your caves and other hiding places at once. All of you. Come in groups, bringing with you only those possessions which you can readily carry.
Author Roy Appleman adds in Okinawa: the last Battle, US Military History of WW II, 2012:
The American plan called for an extensive effort to weaken the enemys will to resist. Intelligence agencies prepared 5,700,000 leaflets to be dropped over Okinawa from carrier planes. More millions of leaflets were to be printed at the target and be scattered over specific areas by bombs and shells. Tanks with amplifiers, an airplane with an ultra-loud speaker, and remotely controlled radios dropped behind enemy lines would also tell the enemy why and how he should surrender.
The gradual improvement in loudspeaker propaganda is also interesting to note. An MIT Press book on WWII psychological warfare mentions a case study from the Battle of Okinawa. It contrasted how aggressive surrender demands with threats of flamethrowers merely increased resistance, while a revised loudspeaker broadcast that was more in line with Japanese cultural beliefs worked. According to the report, an American Infantry officer with a loudspeaker team and a Japanese linguist under orders to translate exactly broadcast this message:
Japanese soldiers, come out of hiding and surrender or I'm going to burn you out with my flamethrowers!
In a second case, a more cultural message was broadcast:
Attention! Attention! I am the lawful American commander in the area. Attention! Attention! I have been ordered, by superiors, to end resistance in this area. Attention! Attention!I order all Japanese personnel to assemble, in soldierly fashion. Attention! Attention! I must end your resistance soon. I have flamethrowers. I would regret the unfortunate consequences of the use of flamethrowers.
According to the case study, most of the Japanese soldiers died in the first case, while most surrendered after the second approach. In the first message there is a threat. In the second message there is respect, a mention of the law and a military system. The Japanese are asked to assemble, not surrender. For those Japanese that knew the war was lost and wanted a way to save face, this second approach seemed to offer an honorable way to survive.
We could write an article just on the
Curiously, other nations used the lesson of Okinawa in their propaganda. The Australians printed a leaflet for use against the Japanese coded J.302. The leaflet is large and there are five photos on the front, including: Allied wounded evacuated by air; American Marines advance; wrecked Japanese planes on the ground; and Allied guns fire day and night. Some of the text is:
Okinawa fell to the Allies on 22 June. On Okinawa, for the first time in the Pacific War, large bodies of Japanese troops recognized the futility of continuing resistance against overwhelming odds. During the last few days of the campaign more than 9,000 officers and men surrendered, and those men are being treated with respect by the Americans
Barak Kushner refutes the relative value of some of the OWI leaflets to Okinawa in The Thought War Japanese Imperial Propaganda, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 2006:
As the battle for
Okinawasurged in April 1945, the OWI and the American armed forces began to assess their most comprehensive campaign launched to date. Out of a garrison of approximately 120,000 Japanese troops, 11,000 POWs were taken, but only 7,400 were Japanese soldiers. The others were Korean or Taiwanese laborers. While it was a partial success compared with efforts elsewhere, the approximately 50,000 German POWs a month who flooded into camps from August 1944 until the spring of 1945 dwarfed Japanese surrender statistics. U.S.
But then he adds:
One reason behind the small numbers of Japanese soldiers captured by
U.S.forces may have been the fact that soldiers slaughtered wounded or surrendering Japanese soldiers U.S.
Leaflet 107 was one of a series of leaflets aimed at
Text on the back is in both Chinese and Japanese and says:
The two great nations fronting on the
Pacific Oceanare united with a single purpose. They are determined to sweep away the Japanese pirates and to restore human liberty.
This is another leaflet to the people of Taiwan to help inspire them with the knowledge that the United Nations are carrying the war to Japan. America believed that although the Japanese had ruled Taiwan for many years, the Chinese population still wanted freedom. The leaflet depicts the Pacific with Allied forces moving toward Japan from the Aleutians, Hawaii, the Solomons, New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, India and China. The text on the back is in Japanese and Chinese. It explains why the Allies were bombing Taiwan. The leaflet says in part:
Many Roads Lead Right to Tokyo!
President Roosevelt declared on 12 February 1943 that There are many roads which lead right to Tokyo. We shall neglect none of them. Taiwan is one of the roads to Tokyo that the President mentioned .And in order that this Taiwan road may be used, together with the other roads, in the final great attack on Tokyo, capital of the Japanese pirates, we must wrest the island from the Japanese .
Another leaflet was aimed directly at the citizens of Taiwan and tells them that they will soon be free of Japanese rule. The text on the back was written in both Mandarin and Literary Chinese style to increase readership. The image is strange. It shows a Taiwanese family laughing and celebrating over the bodies of dead Japanese soldiers. The propaganda text is long so I will just quote the first and last paragraph:
NOTICE TO TAIWANESE
You all understand that in this war, Americas might reaches as far as Japans homeland. And the greatness of Americas Air Force power is such that practically every day Japans cities and military harbors are subjected to the danger of bombing
But America is your liberator, not your enemy. Someday the Arch-militarists of East Asia, Japan militarism, will be defeated. Then you will understand how false Japanese propaganda was. And the fetters and chains that have kept you as slaves for 50 years will be thus entirely removed
Since we have just depicted a number of leaflets aimed at the Taiwanese people, we should show this one that was aimed specifically at Koreans that were forced to work as laborers for the Japanese. The front is all in English and explains to the American soldier that the back is in Korean and asks the reader to point out other Koreans who may be in hiding and bring them forward to the Americans. It was believed that the Koreans would be very happy to escape the Japanese to the safety of the American lines.
Leaflet 519 depicts
Do you know that:
American bases in strength are less than 1500 miles from
The American Navy is free to operate practically off the shores of
The Japanese mainland is in danger of being completely isolated from the rest of the world.
American submarines are sinking Japanese ships faster than
can build them. Japan
The terrible destruction to
Germanyneed not happen to . Japan
Free your country from the Gumbatsu tyrants who control it.
Free your country before it is too late.
The Gumbatsu mentioned in the text is a combination of the militarists (sometimes called "the military clique"), industrialists (Later called the Zaibatsu), large landowners and political office holders. They had the real power and control over the Japanese people. The Allies used this term in a number of propaganda leaflets.
Byron Earhart depicts this leaflet in his book on Mt. Fuji and says in part:
The main use of this image of Fuji in American propaganda leaflets during WWII was suasion, showing the lovely peak as stimulus to homesickness and an inducement to surrender and return home (to Fuji). In this leaflet the message is a direct threat conveyed by the sight of many planes attacking Japan (with Fuji identifying the target).
Leaflet 520 is a rather calm and sentimental picture of a Japanese landscape, with
rocks and trees in the foreground and
In olden days, before
became a powerful nation, citizens were forbidden to visit other countries. If they returned to Japan after such a visit, they were put to death. Japan
With the enlightened rule of the Emperor Meiji, such practices were abolished. After the Russo-Japanese War, more than 2,000 Japanese soldiers taken prisoner by the Russians were returned to
. Some of those men hold important positions today. Japan
Who is trying to make
go back to its former customs, against the wise policy of Emperor Meiji? Who is trying to prevent the return of soldiers who devoted themselves to the nation's welfare? Japan
Are the Gumbatsu ashamed of their conduct of the war? Do they fear to have their mismanagement of the war known at home? Do they fear to have you loyal soldiers see what they have done to the country?
Will you allow them to succeed in their policy of deceiving you?
It is interesting to note that the Psychological Warfare Branch in the
Leaflet 2064 is a very stark
dark blue and white leaflet that depicts a Japanese pilgrim standing at the foot of Mt.
Fuji at the intersection of two paths marked by road-stones reading Duty and
Humanity. The leaflet is designed to lower Japanese morale and create a desire
for peace. Text at the upper right of the leaflet is, There are two roads but only
one goal. The back is all text:
Japanese people have been praised and respected for their sense of duty. A true Japanese knows his obligations to his country as well as his family.
In a predicament such as Taira no Shigemori and Amanoya Rihei were put in, one has to, in order to serve his lord and country, sacrifice his responsibilities to his family. In such a situation, a true Japanese will conquer ninjo [human feeling] and give his all to his country.
Now, from the humanitarian standpoint, you would like to end this war so that you might save your parents and your children from meaningless death. However, you have been taught that you must undergo suffering to carry out your duty to your country. Hence, while you are thinking of your family, you are awaiting death.
If you are truly patriotic, you would not hesitate to put an end to this war. You could not stand to see your country heading straight to disaster. Homes lost, factories destroyed, the people sunk into the depths of poverty. You need not wait until this happens.
Your duty is to bring peace and to save your country from ruin. The Emperor has stated his desire for peace on several occasions.
is based on a family system. When the family is destroyed by death or other forms of disaster, the entire nation suffers. Japan
When you sacrifice yourselves and your families, the nation itself suffers. You lower the prestige of
among the nations of the world. Japan
The Emperor, father of the Japanese people, must be deeply concerned to see his subjects die and the national fiber weakened. Duty to your nation is identical with the duty to your family.
To serve your Emperor is to serve your family. Therefore, if the Gumbatsu prevents you from doing your duty to your duty, rebel and save your family and your nation. Let the Gumbatsu take the blame for starting this war and its consequences.
This is a particularly interesting leaflet as was explained to me by military
analyst Jeffrey Clinton Hill who lived in
The leaflet shows a Japanese pilgrim standing at the foot of Mr. Fuji at the intersection of two paths marked by road-stones reading Duty and Humanity. Those are the English words that translate the Japanese kanji of Geri and Ninjo. The Japanese consider the yin-yang concepts of Giri and Ninjo to be at the heart of what it means to be Japanese along with other Japanese yin-yang concepts that the Japanese consider to be unique to their culture and therefore impossible to translate into English and impossible for foreigners to fathom.
Ninjo refers to human inclinations such as the desire for individual recognition, friendships, love, family life, and all of the simple pleasures and hedonistic desires.
Giri refers to duty. The Japanese concept is that quite often in life there is a conflict between the two and the honorable person will sacrifice his ninjo for his recognized giri. The assumption is that when the conflict arises, choosing giri is tough. Japanese literature abounds with this theme:
Giri: Leave the one you really love, marry for duty, and secretly think of the one you really love with romantic idealism for the rest of your life.
Ninjo: run away from your duty-marriage, indulge in passionate, romantic, beautiful love with your lover for two weeks and then you both jump off a cliff hand-in-hand before society can find you and drag you apart from each other.
I think the PSYOP text of Leaflet 2064 shows remarkable skill. The leaflet honors the Japanese concepts and challenges the Japanese to realize that, given the adversity they are facing, choosing to simply follow their corrupt leaders and die would actually be the easier ninjo choice, while choosing to challenge the Gumbatsu, survive, and rebuild Japan, would be the tougher and more honorable, giri.
I particularly like the last line: Let the Gumbatsu take the blame for starting this war and its consequences. Various Japanese disciplines ranging from zazen indoctrination in a Buddhist temple to everyday at-home child rearing by the mother are Accept life. Don't blame someone. The reason these disciplines exist, in my opinion, is that the Japanese are naturally given to blaming others more than most peoples of the world are given to blaming others. All sorts of ways are built into the Japanese system so that no one individual gets blamed for something. These ways are needed precisely because the Japanese have such a natural tendency to look for someone to blame.
This is a leaflet designed by Frances Blakemore. Morioka says about it:
The light that emanate from behind Mt. Fuji suggests the sunrise Appealing to the Japanese emphasis on family, a long text tells soldier that duty to ones nation is synonymous with duty to ones family Francess illustration exemplifies an effective use of a cultural symbol in the choice of the Mt. Fuji pilgrim motif. Any Japanese citizen would have instantly grasped its spiritual and nationalistic symbolism.
The OWI used certain images and themes on a number of different leaflets. Leaflet 1000 depicts the Imperial Chrysanthemum seal in black and white. Other than the seal, the entire leaflet is all text. Some of the text is:
You have been told that this war had the approval of the Emperor and that the Emperor desired the loss of many young citizens. It is a lie! This is an example of the military deceiving the people to accomplish their own desires. It is the Gumbatsu that has caused the ruin of peaceful and prosperous Japan. You are probably reminded of the edict of the Emperor Sujin:
I wonder if when our Imperial ancestors ascended to the throne, if it was for the benefit of themselves? No, it was in order to lead the people and stabilize the empire. They were able to extend the merit and spread the perfect virtue. Having received at their hands the mighty inheritance, we lovingly nourish our good subjects. In so doing, let us follow the footsteps of our Imperial ancestors, and long preserve the unbound felicity. And you, our ministers and functionaries, should you not cooperate with all loyalty in giving peace to the empire?
How far have the leaders of Japan today strayed from this edict? Those who desired war thwarted the Emperor in his desire to personally lead his people .
Leaflet 2082 has the exact same design, and mentions Emperor Sujins edict. Its conclusion is slightly different. Some of the text is:
This decree gives the everlasting truth of the Empire. However, the ministers today have not fulfilled their great responsibilities in giving peace to the empire. They have stood between the Emperor who loves peace and the people, and obstructed the wishes of the Emperor to reach the people and to become acquainted with the people. They have gambled the destiny of the nation and lost, but take no responsibility by committing suicide. Instead, they try to hide their crimes and demand the suicide of the nation.
When the military clique is destroyed, you will again see happy days as described by Yuryaku Tenno:
At the present time, the world is like one family, the farmers are safe, and peace reigns throughout the realm. Such is the will of heaven.
The idea of placing the Emperor's crest on an American propaganda leaflet seems to have been a poor one. According to a report prepared by the Chief Censorship Section of the Metropolitan Police:
There was a leaflet that quoted the constitution using the Imperial crest of the chrysanthemum. This was against the Japanese belief in the use of the Imperial crest, and not only was it not effective, but is stimulated hate for the Americans among the people.
The reason that the Japanese were so incensed is explained by Professor Byron Earhart. He says:
The chrysanthemum, brought to
Japanfrom as a medicinal and herbal plant, was associated with the imperial family in medieval times.In the Meiji era (1868-1912), when the emperor was made the head of state and promoted as the rallying symbol to transform feudal territories into one unified nation, a sixteen-petal chrysanthemum was officially adopted as the imperial crest. From that time, by national law no one could use this crest without permission of the imperial family (which was granted in a few cases, such as to shrines closely associated with the imperial family). From the Meiji era until the end of World War II, among the civilian population the chrysanthemum crest commanded the same respect and awe as the emperor it represented. A wartime example of the power of this symbol is found in "No Surrender: My Thirty Year War," (Kodansha International, Tokyo, 1974): holdout Lieutenant Hiroo Onoda tells how he dragged his rusted, stockless rifle through the jungles of the Philippines for close to thirty years after the end of WWII, because it had the imperial crest on it. The crest was a visual reminder of absolute loyalty to the emperor, linking every Japanese soldier and sailor to the chain of command that went up through the ranks and ended with the emperor. China
There is a group of leaflets that were considered dual-purpose. They are 523, 524, 525, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531 and 533. They are mostly text and the images are not too exciting. Each leaflet bears a message to the Japanese soldier to weaken his desire to fight to the death and a message to the local civilians to encourage them to avoid battle areas. The messages tend to be long and repetitious. As a result, I will just mention the first line of the four learflets in this section to give an idea of the propaganda:
523: To military men: Does it not amaze you that Americans have already occupied this island?
524: American troops and supplies are being brought ashore in great quantities.
527: Isnt it well known that American production of war materials is the greatest in the world?
528: You all know the kind of life the heroes who lost their arms and legs for Japan led.
The civilian message of 528 warns the local populace that when Americans attack they do so with naval bombardments and aerial bombing. It warns them to leave all the fighting areas immediately.
Leaflet 525 depicts a Japanese soldier drinking from a canteen. I will not translate the entire text because of its length. Some of the more interesting comments are:
To Military Men:
start this war? Why is it necessary to sacrifice thousands of Japan 's brave and outstanding young men and bring about the destruction of homes, factories, merchant ships, and to cause the civilians to live in great poverty? Japan
It is just like the Nomonhan Incident in which 18,000 outstanding Japanese soldiers were needlessly sent to their deaths without the permission of the Emperor by military leaders selfishly seeking personal military glory...
The Army is well supplied with food and water. Demand that they provide you with the necessities of life.
They are responsible for the fact that you cannot provide for yourself. By staying in the cities and towns they have exposed your homes and lives to destruction and made you dependent upon them. Apply to the Japanese Army for food and water. Do not accept a refusal.
The Nomonhan Incident reference is in regard to Hirohitos fear of a
full-scale war between
Another theme used on a number of leaflets was the starving Japanese soldier. Black and white leaflet 1027 depicts a photograph of an emaciated Japanese soldier wearing only a loincloth in an American dispensary. This same soldier appears on a number of different leaflets. The text along the margins of the photograph on the front is:
Japanese Soldier Rescued just before Death from Starvation
This photograph shows a Japanese soldier who was forced to live for eighteen months on a little island in the pacific without food or medical care. Staving and consumptive, he was rescued by a group of Americans who picked him up in a small boat and took him to an American hospital where he was given the best medical treatment. But, it was too late, and today there is little hope that he will live. Will this be your fate?
Text on the back is in part:
Hundreds of thousands of Japanese soldiers were isolated in the
Marshallsand other areas in the South Seas, when American forces captured the Marianas. There supply lines were completely cut. Those who can provide their own food are surviving, but those who can not produce foods are starving. These islands have become useless in the defense of . The men have lost their reasons for fighting. Are your leaders going to leave you on this island? Japan
The same soldier appears again on leaflet 2097. This time his image is at the left of the leaflet and the empty ocean takes up the rest of the photograph. OWI files indicate that 2,250,000 leaflets were printed. The caption to his right is:
Just a year since regular supplies stopped going to the orphaned islands of the south. This wreckage drifting about on the high seas and this picture of a soldier tells the real truth about the war.
Some of the text on the back of the leaflet is:
MARITIME JAPAN - WITHOUT SHIPS!
Your loved ones have been abandoned on isolated Pacific islands where they do not receive one grain of rice or one round of ammunition. Their single hope is that ships will come to rescue them. Now that artery, too, has been severed.
Numberless mines have been laid in the harbors of Japan. In rapid succession, the precious lives of your countrymen and the raw materials that are the nations lifeblood are being blown up.
Japan is bound hand and foot. Unable to act, she can only suffer in silence under the present deadly bombardment. When will Japan be released from the network of mines and submarines? When will you be able to roam over the vast ocean in search of the bounty of the sea?
Each one of you holds the key to this problem. Save your loved ones on the by-passed islands! Save your native land! Throw down your weapons and come forward to build a new Japan.
Psychological Warfare Annex H
We should note that a classified confidential Navy Psychological Warfare document entitled Annex H, which indicates that it was part of a greater document, depicts and says about this leaflet:
This is the second of a series of propaganda leaflets dropped on the Japanese homeland which makes specific use of the effects of the B-29 aerial mining blockade of the Japanese Empire.
The back of this document is Annex I and lists ships sunk by the mining operation of the 20th Air Force. Some of the text is:
Of the estimated 1,000,000 tons of Japanese ships sunk or damaged in 20th Air Force minefields, some 131,000 tons were documented photographically. These ships, although sunk or damaged remained sufficiently above water to permit their photographing from the air.
Leaflet 1054 also depicts the starving man in loincloth. The photos caption is:
Japanese Soldier Rescued Just Before Death from Starvation.
The back is all text. Some of the message is:
A HOSPITAL SHIP CAME BUT....!
You should know well how sad was the condition of your comrades who were recently returned to JAPAN on the TAKASAGO MARU.
On 5 July the American destroyer, USS MURRAY, inspected the TAKASAGO MARU while it was on its way back to Japan, and permitted it to continue its homeward voyage.
At that time, a Japanese doctor on board said, "Of the 974 sick and wounded officers and men who have been taken aboard, fifteen percent will, because of tuberculosis and extreme malnutrition, probably not survive until we reach Japan....
We mention Mines above and this is the only leaflet that actually depicts mines being dropped by parachute from a B-29 Super-fortress bomber. The leaflet is meant to show the consequences of the sowing of minefields in Japanese waters. The Japanese people are warned that if the war continues Japan will soon have no ships. OWI files indicate that 1,000,000 leaflets were printed. The caption next to the photograph on the front is:
This is how mines are laid
The text on the back in part is:
MINE FIELDS OF DEATH
Your harbors and waterways are full of mines. Trying to clear these mine fields is like trying to dry up the ocean with a cup. You remove one and immediately, the B-29s come and lay a new one.
The mine fields simply cannot be cleared, and militarists best know why. Yet they have to supply their war plants with iron and coal, so they recklessly order ships through the mined areas.
Because of this insane policy, the vessels which are essential to the JAPAN of the future are being sunk by mines in daily increasing numbers. If this continues, Japan will soon have no ships left.
The militarists are sacrificing JAPANs future. How long will you permit their reckless actions to continue?
Once again we note that the classified confidential Navy Psychological Warfare document entitled Annex H depicts and says about this leaflet:
This is the third of a series of propaganda leaflets dropped on the Japanese homeland which makes specific use of the effects of the B-29 aerial mining blockade of the Japanese Empire.
I was not going to add this leaflet because we already show two OWI leaflets that discuss mines, but since the report mentions three leaflets which makes specific use of the effects of the B-29 aerial mining blockade of the Japanese Empire. I thought that I should add the first of the three. This leaflet depicts a Japanese ship, and then the same ship sinking. OWI files indicate that 100,000 leaflets were printed. The caption text is:
Another ship sinks. Your loved ones are waiting anxiously on isolated islands in the South Seas.
The text on the back is long so I will just translate a paragraph or two:
AH, PROUD TRANSPORT!
Today again, ships piled high with food, ammunition, and vehicles sailed from the harbor. Will those ships ever reach your fighting men?
Do you know that your loved ones are dying of starvation on isolated islands in the Marshalls, in the farthest mountains of the Philippines, and in the jungle of Burma?
Every day the B-29s are dropping mines around the islands of Japan, the Kammon Straits, and Tokyo Bay. Every important harbor of Japan is filled with mines. They are new mines which cannot be handled in the way you gather seaweed Soldiers setting out for the front lines are drowning before the very eyes of their families who are bidding them a tearful farewell .
Perhaps the most interesting artistic leaflet depicting the starvation of the Japanese people is this Frances Blakemore OWI leaflet that shows a Japanese skeleton awaiting food on the home islands while American sharks wait to attack supply ships bringing food from China, Formosa, the Philippines, Java, and the South Pacific. Some of the text is:
Ships are the lifeline of Japan. Without ships Japan cannot live
Between December 8, 1941, and June 24, 1944, 1,380 Japanese vessels were sunk. Of these, 1,099 were cargo ships (3,300,000 tons) In addition; hundreds of smaller ships were destroyed.
Japan builds less than 2,000,000 tons of new ships a year. We are sinking your ships at a rate of 3,000,000 tons a year. Your Gumbatsu is solely responsible for placing you in such a difficult situation.
One of the most attractive U.S. Navy leaflets is 1006. It was the first in a series of leaflets to be dropped over Japanese troops stranded on bypassed islands. The text is black brushwork on slick paper. The front depicts a beautiful plate of mixed sushi and other Japanese delicacies in full color. To see this leaflet is to salivate. The text is:
Your island has been isolated and cut off from all aid and supplies. You have almost no food and are slowly starving to death. You are as human as we are and the thought of your hunger is far from pleasant.
if you are hungry and wish to have good food, indicate that fact by displaying a large visible cross along the southeast intersection of the airfield runway. We will then be able to help you.
How hungry were the Japanese? MSG Blair quotes enemy soldiers in A Japanese
An entry of 31 December 1942 states:
Since the 28th, not a single grain of rice has been distributed, and during this time, 3 pieces of hardtack were issued. Today there were 3 cigarettes and only a bit of the nutrition ration.
On 1 January 1943 an unknown soldier stated:
During the 3 days as the New Year on Guadalcanal Island, we have lived on one piece of hardtack, and this morning finally got one GO of rice. In the evening, one compressed ration was divided between two soldiers. Now we are eating rice gruel twice a day, and sleeping in the trenches as we are unable to walk. New Year's to us was just in name, for the day was spent suffering from bombardment and hunger.
Another comment is:
The contents of ant nests are good to eat when one is starving.
On 10 January 1943 we read:
Enemy bombardment becomes increasingly intense. We can hold out for one more week. My body is in such condition that I can barely walk. Food is 5 shaku [one-half go] of rice and some compressed rations. This makes 1 month that we have been eating just rice gruel.
Former Marine Private First Class Fred Griffith recalls his unit, Marine Observation Squadron (VMO) 155 dropping this leaflet during WWII. He adds:
Our Marine fighter squadron was based on Kwajalein Atoll in the
during the last year of the war. The squadron was originally supposed to be an observation squadron but was changed to a fighter squadron a few months after it was formed. The men were really anxious to get into the battle, but instead, the squadron was used to train pilots before they were sent to the front to join a fighting unit. As part of their training the pilots flew missions against the many islands in the chain that were still occupied by the Japanese. Isolated Japanese forces held out on Wotje, Maloelap, Mili and Jaluit. These stragglers were supplied by an occasional enemy submarine. It was during these training missions right at the end of the war that the pilots strafed, bombed and dropped the leaflets. The leaflets were placed in wooden boxes and attached to the bomb hooks on the F4U Corsairs and dropped on these runs. The fighters received some anti-aircraft fire on these missions but none of the aircraft were ever hit. Some of our dive bombers were hit and had minor damage during their training missions over the isolated islands. Marshall Islands
The exact same image of a plate of sushi was used on OWI leaflet 522. The text avoids any resistance to surrender by taking it for granted and by suggesting face-saving devices which permit the soldier to surrender with honor. It provides excuses that can be stored in the soldiers subconscious mind and allow him to fall into enemy hands at some later date. Some of the text is:
Soldiers may, during wartime, fall into enemy hands. Through no fault of their own; but due to wounds, sickness, and lack of food he may fall into a semi-conscious state. He may be cut off from his comrades, or perhaps the enemy has won the battle
If you come to the American camp, you will be treated well. You will certainly receive food and tobacco. If you work you will be paid for it. Then after the war, you will be able to help rebuild your country.
Dish of Salad?
I want to stop for just a moment and show a Japanese version of the same leaflet. This leaflet depicts trapped American soldiers seeing their fleet destroyed in the distance by Japanese aircraft. They are starving and think of a luscious plate of salad? Just as the American attempted to induce the Japanese to surrender with promises of fresh, inviting food, the Japanese retaliated with a very similar leaflet. What is interesting is that while the American leaflet shows a Japanese delicacy, the Japanese leaflet does not depict an American delicacy. If they had a better understanding of the American diet they would have depicted a big steak, ham or turkey. Instead they depict a salad, not exactly something a starving GI would relish. I believe that because of the choice of food this must be considered a failed leaflet. Notice also that the Japanese do not use the word surrender. They ask for a Change of mind. The text is:
Nothing but dog-biscuits.
Day after day, positively.
How about a dish of salad like this?
For a change of diet...Just a change of mind.
There is an entire series of very colorful and artistic leaflets that attempt to exploit the American command of the air and its ability to bomb the Japanese at will. Each leaflet shows a horrific scene of death and disaster, but does so almost as an artistic oil painting. Some of the other leaflets in this series are leaflet 2046 depicting a suffering Japanese man under a wooden beam in his bombed house, leaflet 2047 depicting two Japanese factory workers in a burning factory and 2048 showing civilians surrounded by burning buildings. These are all very strong images and painted in a way that the Japanese would recognize and respond to. Leaflet 2056 above depicts a Japanese family after an American bomb raid and says in part:
Bombs have no eyes and no heart. In a crowded city they are guilty of all kinds of cruelty. While our bombs are directed at military or industrial targets, they are so powerful that nearby residences are also affected.
Children see their parents killed before their eyes; mothers are robbed of their children; husbands and wives are separated The only cure for these cruelties of war is peace. For as long as Japan continues the war, bombs will fall in ever-increasing number.
This is another leaflet designed by Frances Blakemore. Morioka says about it:
This leaflet stands out among Francess creations for the unusually rich color scheme despite the terrible theme. In this scene of carnage, a bomb has struck a house: a man, his leg blown off, and a woman lie in a pool of blood, while in the distance a burning factory with tall chimneys illustrates the target of the air raid.
OWI leaflet 2046 has the appearance of an art poster with interesting colors and design. The text is meant to describe the bomber, its range, load, and fire power together with indication of the havoc its bombs can create. The text says in part:
These American bombers above your heads are very advanced and powerful. Even engineers could not have dreamed of these powerful planes just five years ago. These bombers are twenty times bigger than yours, and its armor is so thick and bullets would not penetrate, unless the bullets hit its crucial areas, which is less than one third of total surface of its body. Not only these bombers able to fly at a much higher altitude than your latest fighter planes, but they also can carry a full load of bombs as far as two thousand miles away. Their ability to fly long distances is twice as much as the distances of the Liberators or Fortress as well as their faster flying speed
Instead of the full color artwork found on the previous leaflet, 2048 is printed in red, and the Japanese victims are almost caricatures, like the character in the Edvard Munch painting, The Scream. The standard 5 x 8-inch leaflet uses the earthquake of 1923 as a sample of the horror and destruction that will be caused by bombs dropped by American aircraft. The leaflet depicts fear-maddened masses fleeing the toppling flame-ridden buildings. Tokyo is falling down and burning in the background. There is no text on the front. The text on the back says in part:
Do you remember the great damage done to your country by the earthquake of 1923? America is capable of producing earthquakes that will cause damage a thousand times greater. Such earthquakes will be brought in bundles from 2 1/2 to 4 tons. The bundles are capable of destroying in 2 or 3 seconds the results of several years of struggle and hardship.
I selected leaflet 2018 because it is a different than the usual American propaganda product. It is in the form of a Japanese flag. The bright red ball on a white background was sure to attract attention and would certainly be picked up by the average finder. It is smaller than most WWII leaflets at 6 x 4 inches. The back is all text:
Save the Nation!
is faced with a national danger. Japan
Now is not the time for you to think of your own fame or follow your own desires.
What is the proper act for a Japanese under such circumstances?
Obviously, one who dies foolishly at such a time accomplishes nothing.
is losing the war. Japan cannot afford to lose its citizens as well. Japan
Preserve your race and help build a better
after the war. Japan
I have seen one of these OWI meatball leaflets with the typed text:
These were dropped on Tokyo, February 16, 1945 by Task Force 58 of the Fifth Fleet. We were within 150 miles of the Japanese mainland. No air opposition was encountered!
I added leaflet 2088 because it is one of just a few leaflets to depict President Harry Truman. OWI records indicate that 8,000,000 copies of this leaflet were printed. This appears to be the highest count of any OWI leaflet. The text is:
A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES TO THE PEOPLE OF
Nazi German has gone down in defeat. You, the people of
Japanknow the mighty power of the Army, Navy and Air Force. As long as your false leaders and militarists continue the struggle, we will attack with increasing power over larger areas. We will continue until we have completely destroyed the industries and transportation facilities which sustains United States s fighting power. Japan
Continuing the war only increases the hardships of the people needlessly. The people have nothing to gain. We will not cease to attack till the Japanese militarists surrender unconditionally and throw down their arms.
What will be the effect of unconditional surrender on the Japanese people? In a word, it means the end of the war. It means the destruction of the power of the militarists who have led the nation to the brink of ruin; it will enable the speedy return of the men of the army and navy who are struggling at the front to their beloved homes, their farms, and their jobs. It also means the end of the hardships and suffering brought on by those who dream of victory. However, I wish to state positively that unconditional surrender does not mean the extermination of the Japanese people or their enslavement.
I was asked by the Discovery Channel if there were any Allied WWII propaganda leaflets
A long time ago there was a beautiful girl named Otoyo who served the Lord Hizen. Of all the ladies of the palace, she was his favorite. One day, the lord and Otoyo went into the gardens and enjoyed the flowers until sunset. They were not aware of a huge cat following them. Otoyo returned to her room and went to sleep. At midnight, she was aroused by the huge cat. Terrified, she screamed. The cat jumped on her, bit her soft neck and killed her. The cat buried the dead body of Otoyo and took her form to bewitch the lord. The lord weakened daily; his complexion became pale; and all the medicine he took did not help.
Finally, Ito Soda, a loyal and brave retainer was able to reveal the true form of the cat. The cat ran away into the mountains. The people hunted it down and killed the cat.
What is the meaning of this story? The cat compares with the Gumbatsu, who are sucking the life-blood of the nation. The Gumbatsu is needlessly sacrificing the lives of thousands of young men who are isolated far from home. Also, are they not neglecting to provide the clothing, food, and medicine needed by the people? Are they not causing the ruin of the nation? Beautiful Otoyo who was killed by the cat represents the constitutional system destroyed by the Gumbatsu. Disobeying the orders of Emperor Meiji, the military interfered with politics. Rather than protecting the Empire, they have led the Empire to the brink of disaster. Finally, the cat was forced to reveal her true form by loyal retainers. It was chased into the mountains and killed. Does this mean that loyal Japanese will destroy the Gumbatsu who have fooled the people and the Emperor and thus bring back peace and prosperity to the nation?
The Gumbatsu is the military-industrial complex, made up of high-ranking officers, some politicians, and the wealthy factory owners.
The text goes on to explain that the military-industrial complex in
Wikipedia described it thusly:
An illustration of a bakeneko (monster cat.) In Japanese folklore, a cat with supernatural abilities. A cat may become a bakeneko in a number of ways: it may reach a certain age, be kept for a certain number of years, grow to a certain size, or be allowed to keep a long tail. In the last case, the tail forks in two and the bakeneko is then called a nekomata (forked cat). A bakeneko will haunt any household it is kept in, creating ghostly fireballs, menacing sleepers, walking on its hind legs, changing its shape into that of a human, and even devouring its own mistress in order to shape-shift and take her place. When it is finally killed, its body may be as much as five feet in length. It also poses a danger if allowed into a room with a fresh corpse; a cat is believed to be capable of reanimating a body by jumping over it.
A second mythological creature is depicted on leaflet 2092. These two leaflets being coded so close together implies that there might have been some additional creatures shown in a mini-campaign between 2089 and 2092. This leaflet depicts an angry Buddhist devil with the text:
Your Military Leaders are Responsible for the provoking of This War.
Seek the peace
The back of the leaflet is a list of alleged crimes committed by Japanese military leaders:
The crimes committed by your military leaders are:
1. They have dragged the nation into a war they cannot win.
2. They have conducted this war poorly, sacrificing millions of Japanese lives.
3. They have contrived the sinking of practically every ship built with the sweat and blood of the Japanese people.
4. They are responsible for the starving of hundreds of thousands of garrison unit personnel left behind on the islands of the Pacific.
5. They have provoked war and ruined the life of the people.
1. Your military leaders are turning your native land into ruins.
2. Is the continued sacrifice of countless lives all right with you?
3. Clean up your government!
4. Rebuild your nation!
5. Save what is left of
6. Seek peace!
I added this leaflet because just as the American propagandists depicted fearsome creatures, they sometimes pictured fearsome weapons on leaflets. Leaflet 534 depicts one of the most terrible weapons, the flame thrower. Three American troops are depicted, one using the flame thrower, and over half the leaflet shows the flames burning high over their heads. The leaflet is aimed at civilians and they are warned to keep out of the way. Some of the leaflet text is:
American forces have already landed elsewhere on your island and have made excellent progress. Most of the civilians who stayed in the path of the on-rushing army were killed because of their own foolishness. Unless you are prepared to suffer a similar fate, stay away from the beaches To remain in the path of the Americans will be fatal The American forces have absolutely no intention of shooting at you!
The Original 12-City Bomb Leaflet 2106 with
I now want to talk a little bit about the famous B-29 raids on Japan. The XXI Bomber Command Air Intelligence Report of 19 May 1945 says in a report entitled Psychological Warfare via B-29:
Psychological Warfare is now being carried to Japan by B-29s. This new role for the Super Fortress was ordered by the 20th Air Force to assist in the program being carried out by the Psychological Warfare Branch of CINCPAC and the OWI. To date, Weather Strike aircraft have carried M-26 and M-16 bomb cases loaded with the leaflets which were showered on such cities as Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya. Two hundred twenty seven PSYCH-bombs have been dropped, containing 2,520,000 leaflets. The continuing program calls for the Command to drop up to 400 tons a month.
Printers check out leaflet 2106
The Saipan Newspaper Target
This daily newspaper was published on Saipan by the Information and Education Section of the Western Pacific Base Command. The 29 July 1945 issue is of interest because it actually mentions the B-29 leaflets. Some of the text is:
B-29 COMMAND NOW CALLING ITS SHOTS
Guam 29 July Something new has been added to pacific warfare. The 20th Air Force is now calling its shots, telling the Japanese in advance just which of their cities are going to be bombed next by the Superforts.
Shortly before midnight, Friday, a flight of B-29 showered 60,000 leaflets on eleven Jap cities
Since they mention eleven cities, we can assume this is the very first of the B-29 leaflets with Tokyo removed from the list.
So, how did the operation come into being? Who decided that warning Japanese cities before dropping bombs on them was a good idea? For a long time the credit was given to the OWI on Saipan and Air Force General Curtis LeMay. We now know that although both had part of the operation, the plan seems to have come from an Air Force officer on Guam.
Former Navy Lieutenant Robert Morris describes the origination of the plan in his book No Wonder we are Losing, The Bookmailer, NYC, NY, 1958. Morris tells of being assigned as a psychological warfare officer in 1944 to the Joint Intelligence Center Pacific Ocean Area (JICPOA). He moved forward in early 1945 to Admiral Nimitzs headquarters in Guam. Later, Nimitz placed an advanced headquarters on Saipan. Morris was responsible for travelling to all the various American-conquered islands and working with the commanders to use PSYWAR to bring in Japanese prisoners. By the end of the war, he had visited 61 American outposts. One of his major responsibilities was convincing the Japanese home islands to surrender to save both Japanese and American lives. The home islands were already being bombed and the Japanese as yet showed no sign of surrender. Morris mentions that Richard Hubert was in charge of OWI personnel, but says that the unit was under his operational direction. He talks about the B-29 leaflet project:
In April 1945, the intelligence officer of the 21st Bomb Command on Guam, Colonel Jim Garcia invited me to his Quonset hut and asked. Would you be interested in a leaflet project that would warn the inhabitants of Japanese cities that they were about to be bombed?
Naturally, I leaped to the idea at once. It was particularly fortunate that the plan originated with the B-29 people, for that meant they were willing to assume the risk and responsibility for the project. After a discussion in the operations room, we decided to announce by leaflets, dropped by B-29s on weather runs, the names of six or seven Japanese cities, three of which would be bombed within the next 24 hours. [Authors note: Often commanders who are familiar with the big picture err in the details. In fact, 12 cities were eventually named on each leaflet, probably to make it more difficult for the Japanese to marshal air defenses over the greater number of cities].
The next morning, as early as possible, I was off to the prisoner-of-war stockade with Paul Boller, a Yale graduate student who was the best language officer I could find on the island. I explained the project to him and asked him to explain it in great detail to our Japanese prisoner advisors. I could see that they liked it. They soon indicated that they would help us perfect the language of the leaflet. They agreed it was a humanitarian act that would save many thousands of Japanese lives, possibly those of their own families. Boller, the prisoners and I spent the day polishing the text...
The 21st Bomb Command assigned us three weather B-29s for the warning runs, and the operation got under way. Altogether, 31 cities were warned by leaflets, and 14 of them were fire bombed later.
In August 2011, I spoke to former Navy Lieutenant Junior Grade Paul Boller, then a translator of the Japanese language on Admiral Nimitzs staff, now a professor at Texas Christian University. He was very modest and admitted that he was so far down on the chain of command that he didnt know much about leafleting in general, but he was a prime mover in the B-29 leaflet. He was a member of a small language department on Guam made up of eight linguists.
Paul wrote about his wartime experience in Memoirs of an Obscure Professor, Texas Christian University Press, 1992. He says in part:
I began slipping out of the office and making my way to the prisoner of war stockade, two or three miles away, to chat with the prisoners there .I was anxious to improve my facility in spoken Japanese. Who knows? I might get in on an operation someday, and I wanted to be well prepared The prisoners I approached were friendly and polite; and talking Japanese with them turned out to be great fun
One day, out of the blue, A Navy Lieutenant named Robert Morris came over to my desk and started quizzing me about the prisoners I had gotten to know in the stockade. Do you think it would be possible to persuade any of them to help out on a project I am trying to devise, if they thought it would help shorten the war?
With the conquest of Iwo Jima, our B-29s had such control of the skies over Japan that advance announcements of their raids would in no way put them in jeopardy and probably have the psychological effect of dramatizing American superiority and the futility of Japans continued resistance I rounded up the POWs I had befriended, about five in all, and explained the project to them. As I expected, they all volunteered to help out
When I took the message Morris had prepared to the stockade, my POWs were energetically to work on it Upon its completion, one of the POWs named Kitagishi, and excellent calligrapher, copied it in large and graceful Kanji for photographing
Morris then flew to Saipan with it, where the OWI prepared and printed the leaflets.
The Navy gave Boller his own Quonset hut for the job. He told me that he would regularly call Ardatt Burke at the Air Force and ask them which cities were to be placed on the leaflet that week. Paul said he prepared six or seven different leaflets, but we show below that only half of that number was dropped so obviously they were not all used. One week when he called Burke to ask about the cities for that week he was told that there were none:
There seems to be a special dead of some kind planned for next week. I really dont know what is going on.
Returning from a mission, Boller found out why there were no leaflets that week:
I heard the news over the radio: the United States had dropped an atomic bomb, with the explosive force of 20,000 tons of TNT on Hiroshima.
Paul visited the museum in Hiroshima after the war and was surprised to see that some of the B-29 leaflets were in the exhibit:
To my surprise, one of the exhibits was a set of the leaflets which the prisoners on Guam and I had prepared in the spring and summer of 1945. I couldnt help wondering how it would have been if we had been able to prepare leaflets about the atomic bomb to drop beforehand.
Boller also visited the War Museum in Tokyo and was surprised to note that despite every major battle being described in detail, there was no mention of Pearl Harbor.
Richard Hubert, OWI Chief Forward Area (Saipan) inspects the newly printed B-29 Leaflets
Although the OWI on Saipan took part in many operations and produced propaganda on many themes, the B-29 leaflet is mentioned in detail in the OWI official history. Huberts final report implies that General Curtis LeMay actually requested this leaflet. In a way he did since as Commander he had to approve the project, but we know the request actually came from his intelligence staff. The leaflet depicted a flight of five B-29s dropping bombs with Japanese cities printed in small circles below. OWI Chief Richard Huberts final report said:
On July 25 came a development involving the closest collaboration yet achieved in the theater between military and propaganda operations. At the request of General LeMay, a leaflet text had been prepared warning Japanese cities that they would be bombed within the next few days. The first leaflet notified eleven cities. The original leaflet contained the names of twelve cities and included
, but a last minute deletion of the name of this city necessitated the reprinting of the whole issue totaling 886,000 leaflets. Tokyo
Kanji is the most complicated script in Japanese, first brought to
The original 12-city leaflet named from left to right:
The message on the back of this first leaflet is:
ATTENTION JAPANESE PEOPLE.
Read this carefully as it may save your life or the life of a relative or a friend. In the next few days, American bombs will destroy four or more of the cities named on the reverse side of this leaflet. These cities contain military installations and workshops or factories, which produce military goods. We are determined to destroy all of the tools of the military clique that they are using to prolong this useless war. Unfortunately, bombs have no eyes. So, in accordance with America's well-known humanitarian policies, the American Air Force, which does not wish to injure innocent people, now gives you warning to evacuate the cities named and save your lives.
America is not fighting the Japanese people but is fighting the military clique, which has enslaved the Japanese people. The peace, which America will bring, will free the people from the oppression of the Japanese military clique, mean the emergence of a new, and better Japan.
You can restore peace by demanding new and better leaders who will end the War.
We cannot promise that only these cities will be among those attacked, but some or all of them will be, so heed this warning and evacuate these cities immediately.
Notice the threat to four or more cities. This mention of four cities only appeared on this first leaflet. Later versions did not give a specific number. We should also note that I asked some Japanese translators to look at the message carefully to see if it actually said what the Americans thought it said. They replied:
There are only tiny style differences, for example: Read this carefully as it may save your life or the life of a relative or a friend is better translated in Japanese as Do you hope to save the life of your family and friends? If you wish to do so, please read this carefully.
It is interesting to note that different American translators gave a slightly different translation. I have seen an official B-29 leaflet printed in English rather than Japanese, certainly a specimen for filing, and the leaflet was translated as below, very close to the later official translation, but with very minor changes.
ANNOUNCEMENT TO JAPANESE PERSONS
Please read this flyer carefully if you want save your life and the lives of your parents, brothers, sisters and your friends.
Within a few days the United States Air Force will bomb military bases of four or five cities of those listed on the back of this handbill.
These cities are military bases and have facilities to manufacture war goods. The United States Air Force will destroy all military goods used to fight a useless war. However, bombs do not have eyes. So, there is no telling where one may fall.
As you are well aware, humanistic America does not want to hurt innocent persons. Therefore, please leave the cities listed on the back of this handbill.
You are not the enemy of America. The enemy is the military who have brought you into this war. American peace wants to rescue you from military oppression.
In this way a new and better Japan will emerge. How about choosing new leaders who will bring peace back to Japan?
There may be other cities not listed on the back of this handbill which may be bombed. But of the cities which appear on back of this handbill, four are certain to be bombed.
The Office of War Information magazine Leaflet Newsletter of 1 September 1945 mentions the radio broadcast that went along with the bomb warning leaflet. It says in part;
The bomb warning story broke on American wire services and from Guam sooner than had been anticipated. According to a previously arranged schedule, San Francisco was going on the air with a broadcast to Japan at 4 p.m. PWT. When San Francisco learned that the warning story had broken, they went on the air immediately at 9 a.m. PWT repeatedly for three hours. The announcement was also broadcast in other languages. The text of the broadcast, which was written in the Pacific, follows:
The broadcast you are now listening to may save your life or that of a friend or relative. American bombs will destroy at least four of the cities that we will now name within the next few days. Here are the cities on our list: Kurumo, Uwajima, Tsu, Hakodate, Aomori, Ogaki, Ujiyamada, Nisfinomiya, Ichinomiya, Nagaoka, and Koriyala. Military workshops and installations or factories making military supplies are found in these cities. Our determined resolution is to annihilate all the instruments of the military clique that are being used to lengthen this, useless fight. Bombs have no eyes, unfortunately, so in conformity with the humanitarian policies of America, our air force has no desire that innocent people be injured and now want to warn you to leave your cities in order that your lives may be spared. The United States is not waging war against the people of Japan but is battling the military machine which has enslaved the people of Japan. America will bring you a peace that will loosen your bonds of oppression in which, the military clique has you enmeshed and from this freedom will emerge a Japan that is new and better. Peace can be restored by you if you will demand new leaders that are good and will put an end to this conflict. No promise can be given that only these cities will be bombed, but at any rate, four cities at least will be attacked. So take heed of this warning, and immediately evacuate, from these cities.
Again we want to say to you that we will destroy four or more of the cities we will name now. These cities are (names repeated.).
334 B-29 bombers dropped 1,600 tons of cluster incendiary bombs on the Japanese capital. The bombs had been tested and perfected against mockup Japanese civilian homes at the so-called Japanese village in Utah. These incendiary devices were designed to punch through the thin roofing material of Japanese homes before spraying flaming napalm in all directions. They worked as intended, igniting thousands of small fires throughout the city that quickly converged into a massive firestorm. The raid cut Tokyos industrial output in half overnight, and the human cost was terrible. Postwar Japanese and American estimates put the total number of civilian casualties at over 200,000, with 100,000 killed outright, dead and over 1,000,000 homeless, making the March 9th raid the deadliest bombing raid in human history.
The Emperor's palace grounds were not targeted but a small area suffered collateral
damage. It is said that
In general, propaganda leaflets written in Japanese have little value. Americans cannot read the text, so unless there is a very vivid image they have little interest. This Tokyo B-29 leaflet seems to be the exception. Perhaps because of this article, or perhaps because the Japanese wish to reclaim some of their history, the B-29 leaflets have gradually gone up in price. The leaflet above sold at auction in 2013 for $93. That is an exceptional price for such a Japanese-language leaflet.
11-City Bomb Warning Leaflet 2106 with Tokyo removed from the List
The very first leaflet had twelve cities listed, but a last minute
Japanese Archived Leaflet 2106 Showing Deleted City
After the initial correction when
The Army Air Force dropped this leaflet on at least three occasions. Authors note: There is some debate about the number of leaflet drops because although we have numerous documents listing three drops, some military publications, like the Leaflet Newsletter mentioned above states:
The first 21st Bomber Command Warning to Japanese cities occurred on 27 July 1945.
On 31 July, leaflets fell again on a new list of Japanese cities from 4:00 p.m. until 9:30 a.m. on 1 August.
A third bomb warning was scheduled. It was never dropped. More momentous events made this third warning unnecessary.
I continue to believe that three drops did occur. I have the hand-drawn chart from OWI Saipan entitled Number and quantity of each leaflet and newspaper produced by OWI on Saipan May 20 to August 15, 1945. At the bottom right Hubert has three vertical lines identified as B29I, B29II and B29III. Below the three missions he wrote bombing and above he wrote B-29 cities and towns bombing leaflets.
This leaflet worked on many levels. It showed the people that the Americans could bomb at will and their government and military were powerless to stop them. It also had the result of panicking citizens to leave the targeted city, flooding the roads, blocking transport, and slowing the factories that were producing war weapons and materials. It is curious that the OWI did not place a code number of leaflet 2106. Codes are normally left off "black" leaflets but this product is clearly "white" from the Americans.
The reason for the missing code number came to light during the time I was helping the television show History Detectives research another OWI leaflet. A former member of Admirals Nimitzs Headquarters on the island of Guam talked about making propaganda leaflets. He said that none of the Nimitz leaflets were coded, and he showed a photograph of the B-29 Cities leaflet. So, we can assume that the leaflet was designed in Guam and left uncoded, but printed in Saipan by the OWI unit. This would explain why we see OWI people printing the leaflet although there is no OWI number on it.
There is a code number on leaflet 2106A depicted at the end of this section.
A second version of the 12-City Bomb Warning Leaflet 2106
From left to right the cities named on this version of the 12-city leaflet 2106
Lynn Kidder (front center) and B-29 crew
Paul Boller says in his book that after the war he met the mayor of Hachioji, a city named in the above leaflet. He adds:
One week, the mayor told me, the B29s dropped a bunch of leaflets on Hachioji warning of a possible raid to come and he had given permission for people to evacuate the city if they wanted to. Most of them did, he said, and escaped the raid that came a few days later, leveling the city. Of those who remained, he added, 360 were killed.
A Third Version of the 12-City Bomb Warning Leaflet 2106
The cities named on the third disseminated version of the B-29 leaflet are from left to
Curiously, the dropping of these leaflets must have been common knowledge. Reading the diary of an American Army engineer who was assigned to Okinawa I find the following 3 August entry:
A new leaflet being dropped on Japan proper warns them of new air raids 72 hours warning before they drop any bombs is the usual procedure.
The Star & Herald
This third leaflet is mentioned in the 5 August 1945 U.S. occupied Panama Canal Zone newspaper Star & Herald. This issue has a prominent two-column heading that reads: 12 Jap Cities Get Surrender or Die Notice. The article mentions all the cities threatened, explains why they were selected and says in part:
Guam, 5 August (Sunday). The 20th Air Force today placed twelve more cities on its Surrender or Die list of targets for B-29 raids Some 720,000 warning pamphlets were scattered over Yawata on Kyushu Island. It is the Empires largest single iron and steel center with a population of 650,000. Yawata and the eleven other cities have a combined population of 1,400,000. Another city on the list was Akita, which, with its port of Isuchizaki, is the center of Japans largest natural oil producing field, on the northwestern coast of Honshu
What I find interesting about this clipping is that it shows that not only did the OWI prepare leaflets to attack Japanese morale, but it also produced newspaper articles that were sent around the world to advertise what it was doing and increase the morale of Allied readers. Usually, PSYOP campaigns are classified secret. In this case, America told the world exactly what it was doing.
There is an unsigned report in the Psywar Society magazine Falling Leaf that
another mission was scheduled for 11 August. The author states that he was ordered to fly
from Saipan in his B-29 and drop the 12-City warning leaflets on
There is some duplication on three known versions of this bomb warning leaflet though
We might ask where the OWI got the idea of naming the cities on the leaflets. The Army PWB would produce similar warning leaflets for Japan but without naming the target cities. What did the OWI know that the PWB did not? Was there a historic reference to this sort of PSYOP campaign?
It turns out that there was. In June 1944, when the Allies landed on the beaches of France, bomb warning leaflets were dropped on the civilians in the path of the attack. The civilians did not respond. When questioned, the French civilians admitted that they had seen the leaflets and read and understood the message. So, why hadnt they left their villages and moved into the hills where they would be safe. The French explained that they read and understood the leaflets, but thought that they were probably meant for someone else, perhaps blown into their area by the wind. It immediately became clear to the American propagandists that the only way a bomb warning would be effective was when it specifically named the target city so the inhabitants knew that it was aimed directly at them.
In 1947, the Morale Division of the Office of War Information produced a strategic bombing survey of Japan entitled The Effects of strategic bombing on Japanese morale. The report mentions the bomb warning leaflets:
The fact that the American attack seemed to be proceeding in a descending order from large cities to smaller cities must have given reason to people in smaller cities, and even villages, to feel that their turn would comeand soon. This feeling was further exaggerated by the tactic of dropping leaflets, warning the residents of various communities that they might be included in the next series of attacks.
One of the most spectacular moves in psychological warfare was the Ignited States Strategic Air Forces announcement to the Japanese people of three series of cities that it promised to destroy In the next few days. By this warning to evacuate, the power of the American air arm and the contempt in which it held the Japanese defenders were convincingly demonstrated.
On 27 July 1945, 60,000 leaflets were dropped on each of 11 cities; on 1 August the same number were dropped on another set of 11; and on 4 August 720,000 leaflets warned a third list of 12 cities. Some leaflets with these lists on them were dropped on other cities, of course, and the warnings were also carried on the radio.
As a result of the American air offensive against Japan, 500 separate targets were bombed and an average of 43 percent of Japan's 68 largest cities were destroyed. More than two-thirds of the civilian population experienced air raids, and more than one-third personally experienced bombing. As estimated from the Morale Division sample survey, approximately 1,300,000 people were injured and approximately 900,000 killed as a result of the bombings. Bombing, or the threat of bombing, resulted in mass disruption of the lives of countless millions of people, including the evacuation of more than 8,500,000 persons from cities.
Notice that this document also mentions that the bomb warning leaflet had been dropped three times. In the various documents the dates are sometimes off by a day as are the numbers of leaflets dropped. The former is probably because the mission left on one day and returned on another. There is also the possibility that some reports used the date in the United States rather than the date in japan.
There has always been a rumor that Hiroshima and Nagasaki were warned of the coming bomb raids. The rumor is wrong because as Enola Gay pilot Colonel Paul Tibbets once said in a private conversation with Huberts daughter Jo Williams:
Hiroshima was not warned because the secret atom bomb was to be delivered by bomber devoid of any defense weapons and the Allies could not jeopardize the success of the historic mission by advertising - especially since they rightfully felt the newest weapon would end the war and save thousands of Japanese and Allied lives.
It is easy to see where the rumor started. Jo Williams wrote an article on the bombing campaign that was published by the CIA. She told me:
I did not want to discredit the CIA but since the article has become part of the National Archives it deserves correction and clarification. The text of my article was purposefully ambiguous but under a picture of Leaflet 2106 the CIA inserted a line specifically citing Hiroshima and Nagasaki as being among the 35 cities which were warned ahead of being bombed. This is simply not true. The insertion was done after I approved the final copy for the press. Still, it carries my name so I guess I should have a right to correct it. I shall write the CIA editorial offices with the correct information and they can go as national as they wish with it.
The erroneous leaflet caption on the CIA website is:
Front side of OWI notice 2106 dubbed the LeMay bombing leaflet which was delivered to Hiroshima, Nagasaki and 33 other Japanese cities on 1 August 1945.
It is reported that a bomb warning leaflet was dropped on
President Harry Truman announced to the Japanese less than 16 hours after the atomic bomb was dropped:
This is the answer to Japan for its refusal to accept the Potsdam Ultimatum. We will send over waves and waves of planes with atomic bombs to do destruction the likes of which have never been seen in this world.
On 8 August, President Truman announced:
Even more powerful forms of the atomic bomb were being developed and the United States is now prepared to obliterate any enterprise in Japan.
General Curtis LeMay asked that the last bomb be immediately sent to his command, but the Japanese surrender came before the bomb could be shipped.
A Japanese translator that has studied the target names on the leaflets is surprised to
note that most of the cities are rather small and unimportant. Perhaps they were chosen
because of their manufacturing base or some other unknown factor. They were placed on the
leaflets in no particular order. We should also point out that
Despite the accuracy problems, by 1945, of
Printing the B-29 Bomb Warning Leaflet
The Curtis LeMay bomb warning leaflets hot off the press.
According to Huberts notes, the 73rd Bomb Wing dropped 700,000 of the
11-city leaflets on
ATTENTION JAPANESE PEOPLE.
Read this carefully as it may save your life or the life of a relative or a friend. In the next few days, some or all of the cities named on the reverse side will be destroyed by American bombs. These cities contain military installations and workshops or factories, which produce military goods. We are determined to destroy all of the tools of the military clique that they are using to prolong this useless war. Unfortunately, bombs have no eyes. So, in accordance with America's well-known humanitarian policies, the American Air Force, which does not wish to injure innocent people, now gives you warning to evacuate the cities named and save your lives.
America is not fighting the Japanese people but is fighting the military clique, which has enslaved the Japanese people. The peace, which America will bring, will free the people from the oppression of the Japanese military clique, mean the emergence of a new, and better Japan.
You can restore peace by demanding new and better leaders who will end the War.
We cannot promise that only these cities will be among those attacked, but some or all of them will be, so heed this warning and evacuate these cities immediately.
Notice that in the later versions of the bomb warning leaflet the threat is no longer to four or more cities, but now to some or all of the cities named on the reverse side.
The messages were also broadcast on
Bomb Warning Leaflet 2106A
In a second version of the leaflet, the cities were listed in a box at the lower right.
The second (box type) leaflet is illustrated in United States Pacific Fleet and Pacific
Areas Psychological Warfare, Part Two, Supplement No. 2, CINCPAC - CINCPOA Bulletin
No. 164-45, 15 August 1945. It is coded 2106A. Text at the left of the vignette is,
"NOTICE BOARD." The purpose of the leaflet is "To inspire fear in the
Japanese people by informing them of the cities we intend to destroy, thereby making it
clear by inference that the Japanese air force is impotent and that we are masters of the
Colonel Robert L. Gleason discusses this operation in Psychological Operations and Air Power: Its Hits and Misses, Air University Review, March-April 1971:
Most people are generally familiar with the extensive fire bombing of
during the spring of 1945. Many are less aware of the equally extensive psywar campaign carried on concurrently. In fact, the psywar mission was included in the Joint Chiefs of Staff directive to the Twentieth Air Force not only to inflict physical destruction on Japan but also to undermine the morale of the Japanese people to where their capacity is decisively defeated. This psychological warfare campaign, launched by General LeMay and later taken over and run by Headquarters Commander-in-Chief, Pacific, started with leaflets dropped by the bombers along with their bomb loads. Later the campaign became considerably more sophisticated, and leaflets were dropped on separate missions preceding the bombing raids by a day or two. These leaflets would name about ten towns in Japan and state that a number of them would be bombed and that the people should evacuate the area. We could afford to bomb only a few of the towns listed, but the uncertainty and fear of the unknown created a severe mental strain on all the cities involved. As reported by the Japan Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS) following the war, this psychological operation was most effective. At the height of the campaign, more than 8½ million Japanese were involved in evacuating their citiesmany from cities never touched. U.S.
William E. Daugherty and Morris Janowitz mention the effect that the bomb warning leaflets had on the Japanese in A Psychological Warfare Casebook, Operations Research Office, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD, 1958.
At the close of the war, after Americans had occupied the Japanese homeland, Japanese authorities admitted that bomb warnings sent thousands of people in panic-stricken flight from their homes, thus interrupting the daily routine of the people and thereby, seriously interfering with the Japanese war effort There was nothing the civil or military authorities could do to counteract the effects of the leaflets; i.e., they were unable to reduce or to limit the impact of the fright the leaflet messages inspired.
There was little or nothing that could be done to counteract the growing belief of the people in the impotence of the Japanese military, or to reduce the trust that the people placed in the sincerity and truthfulness of American propaganda...It became increasingly obvious that the warnings hit the Japanese people more effectively than any other propaganda effort attempted by the Americans.
The reaction most commonly experienced, especially in the warned cities, was that of fear. A number of individuals experienced a realization of the great strength of the US and the impotence of Japan. Some interpreted the warnings as evidence of humanitarian instincts on the part of the Americans...Considerable numbers of people moved away from their homes and accustomed places of work when they learned that their home communities were to be bombed. The movements of civilians in many instances, seriously interfered with the movement of military and other supplies According to the word of Japanese leaders the bomb warning leaflets were among the most successful operations in the field of psychological warfare that were directed against Japanese civilians.
Bomb warnings, where feasible, are a powerfully effective means of adding to the desirable psychological effects of bombing. Warnings can be used to reinforce the fears of people and to induce in them panic flight. Warnings can be used to demonstrate materiel and military superiority. Warnings can be used to reduce a target groups resentment against an attacking air force, and to increase the resentment which the people may hold toward their own political and military leaders. Air-warnings leaflets may also be used to discredit the enemys propaganda and to establish credibility for American propaganda.
John W. Dower depicts this leaflet and several others from this article in Cultures of War, W.W. Norton, NYC, 2010. He says in regard to the bombing:
Terror bombing was not aimed only at destroying enemy will. The devastating urban-area raids simultaneously proved an enormous boost to American morale as the pacific entered its ferocious endgame against a fanatical enemy now engaged in kamikaze attacks and suicidal last stands of Saipan, Iwo Jima and Okinawa. As one internal military report put it after the great incendiary raid on Tokyo in early March, the outstanding success of the new bombing policy salvaged the morale and fighting spirit of LeMays crews and persuaded them that the B-29 was an efficient and reliable aircraft.
The Planned Japanese Heavy Bomber G10N1 Fugaku
The Japanese never developed a heavy bomber like the American B-17, B-24 or B-29. At one point in WWII, the Japanese Nakajima aircraft company began to develop a heavy bomber capable of striking the continental United States. This plan was called Project Z. The bomber was to have been powered by six powerful radial engines. Its designation: the G10N1 Fugaku. The giant bomber was never built.
One of the most interesting Allied bombing leaflets depicts General Hap Arnold, Commander of the
20th Air Force and Allied landing barges on the front. The back depicts falling bombs and dead women and children. The leaflet is meant to weaken the morale of the Japanese militarists and civilians. Some of the text is: U.S.
CEASE RESISTANCE AND SAVE YOUR COUNTRY
General Arnold, Commander of the 20th Air Force and who is in charge of the B-29 Super Fortress bomber operations said: There is no part of the Japanese Empire which is not within the bombing range of our Air Force and there is no munitions factory that will escape bombing no matter in how remote a place it may be located.
The systematic bombing of Japans war industries started six months ago from bases in China will be carried on with greater power to soften up the heart of Japan in preparation of joint landing operations by the Allied land, sea and air forces
General Henry Harley Hap
Arnoldwas an aviation pioneer and Chief of the Army Air Corps. He was Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces from 1941 until 1945 and the first and only General of the Air Force in 1949. He is also the only American to achieve five-star rank in two of its armed services. During WWII he was concerned about the B-29 bomber, which was plagued with mechanical problems. In order to assure that U.S. Japanwas attacked the way he planned, named himself the commander of the new bomber force. With approval from the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the president, he created the Twentieth Air Force, consisting of the 20th and 21st Bomber Commands. He transferred General Curtis LeMay and the B-29s from the China-Burma-India theater to the Pacific, with bases in Guam and the Arnold Mariana Islands. LeMay commanded subsequent combat operations against Japan, including the massive incendiary attacks on sixty-four Japanese cities. Hap is credited with being the guiding force behind the aerial destruction of the Japanese Empire. Arnold
At the end of the war, W. D. Conde of the U. S. Civil Information and Education Section ordered a number of uncooperative Japanese "thought control" officials to the Radio Tokyo Building where they were questioned about the effectiveness of the American OWI leaflets. Many of the individuals had been dismissed from their government job in accordance with the American Supreme Commander's directive. At least fourteen Japanese agencies dealt with Allied psychological warfare material. None of the individuals had notes and all make their comments directly from memory. The individual comments were very similar which indicates either collusion, or that they were telling the truth and were of the same opinion.
The LeMay bomb-warning leaflet was the most effective single piece of American propaganda dropped on
according to Mr. Kawagucki of the Home Ministry. Japan
Sukohido Kabayama of the Foreign Office also cited the air raid leaflet as the most threatening. He said that in
, the military had no time to prepare special defenses and all factory work came to an immediate halt as all the workers rushed out of town. Hachioji
Masjiro Kawaguchi, Chief of the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the Home Ministry said, The warning leaflets dropped in advance of raids were very effective because we could not take counter measures against them. He later forwarded a report that added, The people were seized with fear by the leaflets announcing the air attacks beforehand. The city that was warned was surely attacked and destroyed within a few days after the announcement.
A report of the Foreign Section of the Home Ministry agrees, In view of the fact that the cities that received the notice were reduced to ashes within ten days, the citizens of the cities were considerably frightened.
A report of the Foreign Section of the Home Ministry adds, Those leaflets saying that American planes aimed at military plants and advising people to evacuate soon from the vicinity of them were effective, and some workmen of those plants were terrified of the air raids The leaflet shocked us and had a great psychological effect in general. The inhabitants of cities were driven by fear. In
they removed their household furnishings to the outskirts of the cities." Akita Prefecture
A departmental ordinance decreed that the Japanese people collect and turn in Allied leaflets. Those who disobeyed faced a sentence of up to three months in jail and a fine of up to 100 yen. The government did not fear the American propaganda and expected each citizen to do his duty to his Emperor and his nation. It seems therefore, that there was no great enforcement of the ordinance. There were less than a dozen people actually arrested for carrying and reading leaflets, and all apparently received reprimands with no incarceration.
The Original USAF Photograph used to make the Bomb Warning Leaflet
The photograph depicts B-29 Bombers from the 73rd Bomb Wing dropping
Incendiary Bombs over Japanese Installations in
, 29 May 1945 Yokohama
There is some documentation that shows that the pilots were very unhappy about dropping warning leaflets pointing out future bombing targets. They felt that the Japanese would be able to build up the air defenses around those named cities. However, General Curtis LeMay was able to convince them of the long-term psychological advantages of the campaign. At the same time, the OWI radio on Saipan increased its power to broadcast the same message to the Japanese people.
General Curtis LeMay
For those too young to remember WWII and the Cold War, a word about General Curtis Iron Ass
LeMay. It is surprising that he supported psychological operations against Japanbecause he was an old-fashioned hard-line warrior who introduced the fire raids on during WWII. Japan LeMayhad few qualms about the fire raids believing that they would shorten the war. In July 1944, Le May was given command of the 21st Bomber Command. He wanted to destroy Japan's manufacturing industry, and concluded that his mission was to obliterate 's manufacturing base, including the small industries that fed the large factories. His Japan raid on 9-10 March 1945 killed 100,000 people, injured another 100,000, and destroyed 16 square miles of the city. For the attack on Tokyo , over 300 B-29's were involved. They flew at a surprisingly low 7,000 feet and dropped M-69 incendiary bombs that weighed 6 lbs each. Each B-29 carried 37 containers with 38 bombs inside, or just over 1,400 bombs per plane. The bombs exploded on contact with the ground and spread a jelly-petrol compound that was highly inflammable. The fires consumed the oxygen in the air and people actually suffocated to death. Tokyo LeMaylost 14 B-29s. He once said, Killing Japanese didn't bother me very much at the time....I suppose if I had lost the war, I would have been tried as a war criminal....every soldier thinks something of the moral aspects of what he is doing. But all war is immoral and if you let that bother you, you're not a good soldier. At the end of the war, he became head of the Strategic Air command and later Chief of Staff of the Air Force. In 1964, the character of the insane Air Force General Jack D. Ripper in the movie Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb was allegedly based on General Curtis LeMay. Alabama Governor George Wallace selected him as his vice-presidential running mate for his unsuccessful run in 1968.
Since we mention Curtis LeMays firebombing of Tokyo perhaps we should depict the results as they appear on an OWI leaflet to Japan. The picture shows what remains of Tokyo after the fire-bombing. Some damage to the Imperial Palace is visible dead center in the middle of the photograph. The back of the leaflet is all text and says in part:
Raids over Tokyo
You must have heard of the news of the American bombers raiding Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyushu and other areas. This picture was taken on one of these raids. Tokyo station, the Niju Bridge, and the Marunouchi [commercial district of Tokyo] can be seen in the picture. Air raids will be continued until the Japanese leaders admit defeat and negotiate for peace with us .
Japanese 10 yen banknote Parody 2009
Another very successful campaign was a series of four banknote leaflets in the form of a Japanese 10 yen Bank of Japan convertible note of 1930, with code and propaganda text on the back. There are four such notes, each with a different text. The code numbers are 2009, 2016, 2017, and 2034. The text on the back of leaflet 2009 is:
FIVE THOUSAND YEN. With this money, pay your land taxes. The military clique is squandering your tax money. The military caste has been spending an awful lot of your money, 5000 yen per individual person for this war. The longer the war endures, the more of your money the militarists will waste.
The text on leaflet 2016 is:
FACTORY WORKERS! [Shokko] Until now, you workers earned a great deal of money. But of what use is it to you? Your purchasing power is no different from that of this 10-yen bill. You who exert all your efforts in the production of war weapons should also be regarded as soldiers. You are the soldiers of armament production. But can you buy as much rice and beer as the soldiers? Can you purchase the commodities that soldiers and their families can buy with their special rations?
The text on leaflet 2017 is:
TO THE JAPANESE PEOPLE! The money and bonds deposited in the bank, are they of any use? We recommend that you instead buy daily necessities and commodities you will need in the future. Goods are becoming scarce. Because of the air raids, most of the shops will soon be unable to open. To cope with these difficult times, we recommend you buy food, clothing and the daily necessities. Money alone cannot prevent hunger, and it can not be used in place of food and clothing. With savings bonds, you cannot stop a child from crying. If you are prudent, you will buy commodities instead of depositing your money. This is not a time for saving. Now is the time for buying goods.
The text on leaflet 2034 is:
Before the military clique started the war, the following commodities could be bought with 10 yen in Showa 5 .
* Two to and 5 sho [about 20 Kg] high quality rice.
* Textiles for summer clothing for eight persons.
* Four hyo [50 Kg. packages] charcoal
The following commodities could be bought with 10 yen just after the
incident in Showa 12 . China
* Two to and 5 sho low-quality rice.
* Textiles for summer clothing for five persons.
* Two and a half hyo [2 ½ packages] charcoal.
Today (1945), three years after you have fought a hopeless war against the world's strongest country, the following commodities can be bought for 10 yen.
* One sho and two go [1 ½ kg] good quality rice on the black market.
* A small amount of charcoal (if obtainable)
* No cotton material for clothes.
These are the results of the mutual prosperity your leaders told you about!
The Post War Home of OWI Forward Base Commander Richard Hubert
Richard Hubert had spent two decades in China and Japan and was highly respected by the Japanese people. The Bible asks that people beat their swords into plowshares. Richard was Canadian and helped found a Japanese hockey league. He beat his hockey stick into a Samurai sword. As a reward for coaching Japanese teams, local officials presented Hubert with an antique Samurai sword. He would later command the OWI forward base in Saipan and print the Japanese counterfeit yen. When I first saw this photograph I was drawn to the framed picture over the display. He has framed the front and back of one of his OWI fake 10 yen notes and a photo of himself and a Japanese collaborator on Saipan.
Short Snorter with OWI Propaganda Banknote 2034
Americans love to collect souvenirs of their service. I have a banknote from every country I ever served in. During wartime troops will have all their unit members sign such notes and tape them together so that in later years they can remember each and every one. The short snorter above is a record of one mans WWII service and battles and consists of six items including a 10 Yen from Japan signed by a Major Herman Schroeder, OWI leaflet 2034 with a typed comment Propaganda leaflet - Tinian, a 5 Yen from Japan with typed message at the top Removed from a dead Jap in a cave on Iwo Jima and an unreadable signature, a 10 Yen from Occupied Korea with one unreadable word and 3rd summer - 1944, a 10 Yen with Occupied China and a 100 Yen from Japan with Sapporo, Hokkaido, 5/8/1945. We depict the fronts of the first two, so the leaflet is the banknote on the right.
After the war,Iwatai Sakamoto, Chief of the censorship Bureau of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department cited the 10-yen note leaflet as one of the most effective.
Toshikazu Kase, Chief of the First Section of the Third Department of the Cabinet Board of Information added, The 10 yen note leaflet was the most effective. It was a very powerful leaflet. It evoked great interest and curiosity among the Japanese people.
Masjiro Kawaguchi, Chief of the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the Home Ministry forwarded a report that said, Leaflets of our 10 yen notes most excited the curiosity of our people. The best leaflet was the one that dealt with the cost of living [No. 2034]. In
Fukushima, Fukuka, and there were cases where the 10 yen leaflet was used as currency. Aichi Prefectures
A report of the Foreign Section of the Home Ministry adds, The 10 yen banknote leaflet aroused the nation's curiosity and gave the financial circles anxiety as they believed that the Americans might drop counterfeit currency at a later date. The banknotes addressed to workers  were unpopular among the working class because they felt insulted by the leaflet. About the 20th of June, a certain Yamazaki in
used the forged 10 yen note leaflet and was arrested. Hiroshima Prefecture
We now come to the end of the war. It is interesting to note how the OWI took part in the final demoralization and defeat of Japan. The last dozen leaflets of the war told the Japanese that there fate was sealed. Day by day the news got worse and it was just a matter of time before the Emperor was convinced to sue for peace. As mentioned earlier, leaflet 2106 warned the Japanese that their cities would be bombed. Leaflet 2107 informed the Japanese of the full terms of the
Declaration to assure that the militarists could not distort the Allied message. 5,500,000 copies of this leaflet were dropped on Potsdam on 31 July. Japan
Leaflet 2107 was in the form of a miniature special edition of the newspaper Mariana Jiho. The entire Potsdam Declaration was written on the front and back of the leaflet in black ink. OWI files indicate that 5,500,000 leaflets were printed. The OWI thought that the Japanese leaders might try to distort the meaning of the declaration, so they insured that the Japanese public could read the complete text. There were 13 paragraphs in all. I will not translate the entire leaflet some of the paragraphs are:
We, the President of the United States, the President of the national government of the Republic of China, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have conferred and agreed that Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war.
The prodigious land, sea and air forces of the United States, the British Empire and China, many times reinforced by their armies and air fleets from the west, are poised to strike the final blows upon Japan.
The Japanese military force, after being completely disarmed, shall be permitted to return to their homes with the opportunity to lead peaceful and productive lives.
We call upon the Japanese Government to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all the Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction.
This translation might have been written by Otis Carys Japanese prisoner-of-war group. Otis Cary was a Navy linguist who had been born in Japan as the son of missionaries. Cary already spoke excellent Japanese, and after completing the Navys Japanese language school, he was commissioned as an ensign and sent to Hawaii to serve in Admiral Nimitzs Central Pacific Command. Cary took part in the American invasions of Attu and Saipan. In early 1945, he convinced a small group of Japanese prisoners held at a POW camp near Pearl Harbor to consider cooperating in Americas war efforts by writing propaganda. They first improved the effectiveness of the American propaganda newsletter, Mariana Jiho (Mariana Bulletin). However, the most significant project the group completed was the rapid translation of the Potsdam Declaration in July 1945.
Leaflet 2108 pointed out that Japanese military history proved that surrender is not a disgraceful act. Leaflet 2109 told the Kamikaze to disobey their orders and crash their aircraft near American ships where they could be rescued. Leaflet 2111 asked Where is the rice? and was designed to create anxiety about the adequacy of the food supply. Leaflet 2112 told the Japanese people about the new United Nations Charter signed in San Francisco and that the Allies were a peace-loving people.
Leaflet 2113 told the Japanese of the 7,519 Japanese officers and soldiers who had surrendered on Okinawa. It adds that if labor troops are counted in, the number is more than 11,000. Some of the text is:
There were cases where, in one day, more than several hundred surrendered, including entire units led by their officers. Even the surrender of high-ranking officers, who occupied posts of importance, is no longer unusual
This picture shows some of your comrades who have embarked on a new life. Far from being killed or maltreated, hey are taken care of and given medical treatment just as American soldiers are.
If you die in battle Your family will say with their lips He died well. But will they truly be happy in their hearts? Perhaps you have heard a weeping bereaved family say, We have been robbed of a dear son.
Lieutenant Robert Morris tells us about the origin of this leaflet:
The Invasion was undertaken by the 10th Army Their enthusiasm for psychological warfare apparently had not diminished, for when they landed they had a complete psychological warfare unit assigned to them This was really the first full-scale psychological warfare attached to an invasion army in the entire Pacific War. The fact that over 19,000 prisoners were taken on Okinawa testified to their success.
[Note: The leaflet mentions 11,000 prisoners, but states that is up till 5 July. Surely the Morris number of 19,000 is a total counted at the end of the operation.
A very plain small 4 x 5-inch all-text leaflet may be one of the most important items dropped by Allied aircraft over
. The leaflet is coded 2114 and is in the form of a extra addition of the American propaganda newspaper Mariana Jiho. Its purpose was "To inform the Japanese people of the new atomic bomb and to make them aware of the great devastation that is in store for them. Some of the text is: Japan
ATOM BOMB COMPLETED
- August 6 - President Truman today issued the following statement: Washington
Sixteen hours ago an American airplane dropped one bomb on
, an important Japanese army base. That bomb had more power than 20,000 tons of TNT. It had more than 2000 times the blast power of the 11-ton British "Grand Slam," which is the largest bomb ever yet used in the history of warfare. Hiroshima
With this bomb we have now added a new and revolutionary increase in destruction to supplement the growing power of our armed forces. In their present forms these bombs are now in production and even more powerful forms are in development.
It is an atomic bomb. It is a harnessing of the basic power of the universe. The force from which the sun draws its power has been loosed against those who brought war to the
Before 1939, it was the accepted belief of scientists that it was theoretically possible to release Atomic energy. But no one knew any practical method of doing it. By1942, however, we knew that the Germans were working feverishly to find a way to add Atomic energy to the other engines of war with which they hoped to enslave the world. But they failed. Beginning in 1940, before Pearl Harbor, scientific knowledge useful in war was pooled between the United States and Great Britain and many priceless helps to our victories have come from that arrangement. Under that general policy the research on the Atomic Bomb was begun. With American and British scientists working together we entered the race of discovery against the Germans.
The United States had available a large number of scientists of distinction in the many needed areas of knowledge, It had the tremendous industrial and financial resources necessary for the project and they could be devoted to it without undue impairment of other vital war work
We have spent two billion dollars on the greatest scientific gamble in history and won.
We are now prepared to obliterate more rapidly and completely every productive enterprise the Japanese have above ground in any city. We shall destroy their docks, their factories, and their communications. Let there be no mistake; we shall completely destroy
's power to make war. Japan
Lieutenant Robert Morris tells us about the origin of this leaflet:
On August 6 General Thomas J. Farrell (in charge of advanced operations of the atomic bomb project) and his Public Relations Officer Major John Moynahan had been to see Admiral Nimitz that day, and he had sent them to me on Saipan
Moynahan gave me the basic ordnance facts, such as the TNT equivalent of the bomb and the details of the atomic bomb program ahead, and we incorporated them into our leaflet. This particular leaflet had to be cleared by higher authorities We took the text to General LeMay and Admiral Nimitz. When the translation was effected and clearance obtained, we hastened back to Saipan to have it printed. We delivered the first supply of leaflets on 9 August. Six million were dropped on 49 cities. While we were working news came through that the second bomb had fallen, not on its prime target but on Nagasaki.
The atomic bomb propaganda campaign is mentioned in the report: The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki prepared by the Manhattan Project Atomic Bomb Investigating Group. It says:
On the day after the Hiroshima strike, General Farrell (Deputy Atomic Bomb project) received instructions from the War Department to engage in a propaganda campaign against the Japanese Empire in connection with the new weapon and its use against Hiroshima. The campaign was to include leaflets and any other propaganda considered appropriate. With the fullest cooperation from CINCPAC of the Navy and the United States Strategic Air Forces, he initiated promptly a campaign which included the preparation and distribution of leaflets, broadcasting via short wave every 15 minutes over radio Saipan and the printing at Saipan and distribution over the Empire of a Japanese language newspaper that included the description and photographs of the Hiroshima strike.
The campaign proposed:
1. Dropping 16,000,000 leaflets in a period of 9 days on 47 Japanese cities with population of over 100,000. These cities represented more than 40% of the total population.
2. Broadcast of propaganda at regular intervals over radio Saipan.
3. Distribution of 500,000 Japanese language newspapers containing stories and pictures of the atomic bomb attacks.
The campaign continued until the Japanese began their surrender negotiations. At that time some 6,000,000 leaflets and a large number of newspapers had been dropped. The radio broadcasts in Japanese had been carried out at regular 15 minute intervals.
Boller mentions the campaign in his book. It appears that once again Morris used Boller and his POWs to write the Japanese text:
I flew back to Guam to work with my POWs on the new leaflet. I was struck by the fact that my collaborators put the term atomic bomb at once into Japanese (genshi bakudan) and went ahead with the translation as if there were nothing special about the Truman statement. When they finished, I couldnt help saying, Its really awful isnt it, this genshi bakudan? You mean its real? they cried in evident surprise. Their surprise surprised me. They had translated a statement which they had taken for granted was mere propaganda
[Note. The second atomic bomb was to be dropped on Kokura. On the bombing day it was socked in by clouds. The B-29 Bockscar was running short of fuel and could not return with the heavy 10,000-pound bomb called fat man so selected the secondary target Nagasaki to lighten the aircraft].
The British Underground Propaganda Committee spread thousands of rumors
Speaking of propaganda and the atomic bombs I want to mention a very strange coincidence. In an attempt to raise the morale of occupied Europe and lower the morale of the German military, civilians and their allies, the secret British Underground Propaganda Committee produced well over eight thousand rumors, (they called them Sibs from the Latin sibalare to hiss). Researcher Lee Richards mentions the whisper campaign and many of these rumors in his book Whispers of War, Psywar.org, 2010. In regard to British propaganda rumors about the still top secret atomic bomb he mentions several rumors. It is amazing to note that while the atomic bomb was one of the greatest secrets of WWII and everything possible was done to keep American research on the bomb hidden from the enemy until its actual use in August, 1945, the British, apparently not knowing of the American project blithely used the threat of it in their rumor campaign. Some examples:
17 January 1941 Americas Flying Fortresses are specially designed to carry atomic bombs with a blast area of two miles generating intense heat.
22 January 1941 Sir William Bragg has been knighted for perfecting the uranium bomb.
19 March 1943 Air Marshall Harris is very satisfied with the Essen try-out of the new uranium atom bomb.
If American security heard of these rumors they surely were in a state of panic. The less said of the atomic bomb in the early years of the war the better.
The Atomic Bomb is being Moved to the Front
The OWI received orders on 7 August to institute a PSYOP campaign with the Atomic Bomb as its focal point. They would drop 3,600,000 leaflets daily for 9 days on Japanese cities having a population of more than 100,000 persons. A Japanese prisoner-of-war recorded the leaflet text for Saipan radio for broadcast to
Japan starting at 1830 on 8 August. These broadcasts continued half hourly until the evening of 10 August. The plan called for daily delivery for 9 days of 75 M-16 bomb cases, each containing 32,000 leaflets. The first delivery of leaflet bombs was on 9 August. Such a grand campaign was not required. On the night of 10 August, the Japanese government first expressed its willingness to discuss peace negotiations.
American intelligence monitoring the Japanese radio on 9 August mentioned the Japanese response to the atomic bomb in a secret report dated 12 August 1945. It said in part:
With the gradual restoration of order following the disastrous ruin that struck the city of Hiroshima in the wake of the enemys new type of bomb on Monday morning, authorities are still unable to obtain a definite check of casualties in the civilian population.
Medical relief agencies were unable to distinguish, much less identify, the dead from the wounded. Practically all living things, animal and human were literally seared to death by the tremendous heat and pressure of the blast. The effect of the bomb was widespread. Those outdoors were burnt to death while those indoors were killed by the indescribable pressure and heat.
The first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. The second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
We have known for many years that the code AB was American propaganda for
, but little more. My records show that there are at least two items from this series, which the government listed as: AB11 - Warning of Atomic Bomb and AB12 - To the Japanese People, Bomb Warning. The code AB clearly meant atomic bomb. When I checked through old OWI reports I found a notation that AB11 and AB12 were called atomic bomb leaflets and 3,500,000 copies were printed of the first and 1,600,000 copies were printed of the second leaflet. OWI records state that 5,180,000 of these notices were delivered by B-29s for dropping on Japan . AB11 was apparently printed and dropped on 9 August 1945, the same day the Japan Nagasakibomb was dropped and told of the atomic bombing. AB12 was also printed on 9 August but was dropped on 10 August and told the Japanese people of the Nagasaki atomic bombing. The leaflets are smaller than usual, measuring 5.5 x 4.25-inches. According the OWI notes, the leaflets were declassified 12 August 1977. AB11 says on one side: Hiroshima
TO JAPANESE PEOPLE:
America asks that you take immediate heed of what we say on this leaflet
We are in possession of the most destructive explosive ever devised by man. A single one of our newly developed atomic bombs is actually the equivalent in explosive power to what 2,000 of our giant B-29's can carry on a single mission. This awful fact is one for you to ponder and we solemnly assure you it is grimly accurate.
We have just begun to use this weapon against your homeland. If you still have any doubt, ask what happened to
when just one atomic bomb fell on that city. Hiroshima
Before using this bomb to destroy every resource of the military by which they are prolonging this useless war, we ask that you now petition the Emperor to end the war. Our President has outlined for you the thirteen consequences of an honorable surrender: We urge that you accept these consequences and begin the work of building a new, better, and peace loving
You should take steps now to cease military resistance. Otherwise, we shall resolutely employ this bomb and all our other superior weapons to promptly and forcefully end the war.
EVACUATE YOUR CITIES.
The text on the other side of the leaflet is:
ATTENTION JAPANESE PEOPLE.
EVACUATE YOUR CITIES.
Because your military leaders have rejected the thirteen part surrender declaration, two momentous events have occurred in the last few days.
The Soviet Union, because of this rejection on the part of the military has notified your Ambassador Sato that it has declared war on your nation. Thus, all powerful countries of the world are now at war with you.
Also, because of your leaders' refusal to accept the surrender declaration that would enable Japan to honorably end this useless war, we have employed our atomic bomb.
A single one of our newly developed atomic bombs is actually the equivalent in explosive power to what 2000 of our giant B-29s could have carried on a single mission. Radio Tokyo has told you that with the first use of this weapon of total destruction, Hiroshima was virtually destroyed.
Before we use this bomb again and again to destroy every resource of the military by which they are prolonging this useless war, petition the emperor now to end the war. Our president has outlined for you the thirteen consequences of an honorable surrender. We urge that you accept these consequences and begin the work of building a new, better, and peace-loving Japan.
Act at once or we shall resolutely employ this bomb and all our other superior weapons to promptly and forcefully end the war.
There is a Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum that has among its many displays, copies of American leaflets warning of the atomic bomb just dropped on Hiroshima. Wikipedia says:
<>Leaflets which American forces dropped on Japan during the early part of 1945 are on display. One gives information on the bombing of Hiroshima and the power of the atomic bomb, warning citizens to leave the city and stop fighting.
EVACUATE YOUR CITIES.
Leaflet AB12 has the propaganda message:
ATTENTION JAPANESE PEOPLE
EVACUATE YOUR CITIES
Because your military leaders have rejected the thirteen part surrender declaration, two momentous events have occurred in the last few days.
The Soviet Union, because of this rejection on the part of the military has notified your Ambassador Sato that it has declared war on your nation. Thus, all powerful countries of the world are now at war against you.
Also because of your leaders' refusal to accept the surrender declaration that would enable Japan to honorably end this useless war, we have employed our atomic bomb.
A single one of our newly developed atomic bombs is actually the equivalent in explosive power to what 2000 of our giant B-29's could have carried on a single mission. Radio Tokyo has told you that with the first use of this weapon of total destruction, Hiroshima was virtually destroyed.
Before we use this bomb again and again to destroy every resource of the military by which they are prolonging this useless war, petition the Emperor now to end the war. Our President has outlined for you the thirteen consequences of an honorable surrender; we urge that you accept these consequences and begin the work of building a new, better, and peace loving Japan.
Act at once or we shall resolutely employ this bomb and all our other superior weapons to promptly and forcefully end the war.
EVACUATE YOUR CITIES
Note: A copy of AB12 was offered for auction on EBay in July, 2018 for under $10. The owner did not know the significance of the leaflet so just called it a WWII Japan Surrender Propaganda Leaflet. The Central Intelligence Agency on its website says incorrectly that the Le May bombing leaflets (2106) mentioned Hiroshima and Nagasaki to the Japanese. They did not. It would have been foolish to mention the possible targets of a highly classified and untested secret weapon before it was dropped. The first mention of the atomic bomb on a leaflet is found in AB11 and AB12 (thus the AB), dropped after the Hiroshima bombing. Apparently there were collectors (perhaps Japanese) watching the auction that did understand the value, and the leaflet sold for $199.88.
These leaflets seem to be mentioned in Lieutenant Colonel John F. Moynahans book Atomic Diary, Barton, 1946. Moynahan was a communications officer for the Manhattan Project during World War II. On 9 August 1945, he flew over Japan in the task force that dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki. He talks about getting the order to print the leaflets. I have edited his comments for brevity:
Navy Lieutenant Robert Morris headed the Advance Psychological Warfare Section of CINCPAC. I found him that night on Saipan. We drafted a leaflet and worked on our circulation department. The cities of over 100,000 would be our targets. There were 47 of them. We conferred with the OWI at Saipan on the complex problem of printing and packing the leaflets in T-3 leaflet bombs. Our aim was more than 6 million.
In the prisoner stockade, three young Japanese officers were poring over our copy. When our three prisoner officers had finally made our message calligraphic Morris and I noted that everything was translated except B-29. The Japanese had no word for it. The Japanese believed it would take more than one atomic bomb before they would quit.
Morris said OWI head Dick Hubert printed a Japanese newspaper. [See Mariana News 2523 in the first section of this story]. I had the top secret photo of the Hiroshima burst. We used this to illustrate the newspaper. We also went ahead with the original leaflets. We chopped them to half the customary size to double our distribution of them to the Japs. [As we said above, the leaflets are smaller than usual, measuring 5.5 x 4.25-inches. Apparently this occurred about 8 August because Monyahan says he was then ready to go on the Nagasaki mission which was 9 August]. Moynahan concludes: We flew to Guam to get priority loading of our leaflet bombs. Our pilot that night was Marine Lieutenant Tyrone Power. Something must have gone wrong with our Circulation Department. The day after Nagasaki was hit by the atomic bomb [10 August] our warning leaflets [AB-12] came fluttering down over the devastated city.
After the atomic bombing of
Hiroshima, all but the most fanatical diehard militarists knew that had lost the war. However, those militarists still held power and controlled the means of communication to the Japanese people. They also had the will and the ability to take the Emperor hostage and carry on the hopeless war. In order to disarm these leaders and inform the people that peace talks secret peace talks were in discussion, the OWI prepared two leaflets for the Japanese people. One leaflet informed them of current negotiations with the Allies. The second announced the surrender of Japan . They were premature, but printed and held in reserve for the proper moment of dissemination. Both leaflets would be all text, prepared quickly and used as needed. Perhaps because of the nature of the message, the second leaflet stating that the war was over was 2116, while the first leaflet mentioning the talks was 2117. Japan
Leaflet 2115 was prepared as a special extra edition of the weekly newspaper Mariana News. It points out that Japanese military leaders have rejected a call for peace and that the Soviet Union has entered the war against
Perhaps we should take a moment to build a rough timetable of the last days of the war.
In July 1944,
Saipanwas captured. The Allies then had direct radio and B-29 access to the Japanese mainland. In March 1945, U.S.Army Air Force firebombing destroyed most of Tokyoand caused more casualties than the later atomic bombing of . In July 1945, the Hiroshima PotsdamConference set the Germanyterms of surrender and offered surrender terms. On 27 July, OWI leaflets announced the surrender terms to the Japanese people. They were ignored. On 28 July, General LeMay ordered bomb warnings dropped for civilians in specified cities. On 6 August, the first atomic bomb was dropped on Japan . On 7 August, an OWI newspaper leaflet explained the special nature of bomb and threatened more. The same day, Radio Hiroshima Tokyoreported that the bombing was being investigated. Rumor has it that Hiroshima Tokyodispatched a team to investigate the attack. The team arrived at night in a rainstorm. The team set up camp at the base of a hill that had been totally denuded of all vegetation. The heavy rainstorm caused a landslide that buried the entire camp and team. Hiroshima lost all contact with the investigating team. It is thought that the Japanese government did not realize the power of the bomb and the damage it caused. Tokyo
The second bomb was dropped on
on 9 August. On 10 August, the Emperor broke a Cabinet stalemate and ordered the surrender of Japanese forces. Allegedly, that same day, a third atomic bomb mission was cancelled. It is my understanding that the United States only had two bombs at the time with a third bomb expected to be ready about 17 August, so this might have been a deception rumor. Documents declassified since the end of the war have hinted that the third bomb would have been dropped on Tokyo, though I think this is doubtful. The Allies needed a viable Japanese government to deal with. Another rumor is that there was one plan to use seven atomic bombs during the invasion of Japan to clear the way of all obstacles. This would seem to indicate that the Americans had little fear of the radiation threat. Nagasaki
If this seems impossible one must remember that during the Cold War there were countless experiments where atomic bombs were dropped and individuals put in danger. For instance:
In July of 1951, the military asked the AEC for permission to have soldiers take part in maneuvers that would simulate atomic warfare. The request came just after the first series of tests held in Nevada, Operation Ranger. The original proposal was for 5,000 troops to take up combat positions at a barely safe distance from a test detonation, and then advance into the area affected. The chairman of the AEC readily agreed under the condition that the military alone be responsible for the safety and living conditions of the troops An hour after the 31-kiloton explosion of Shot Charlie, the troops were trucked into the area where the equipment was deployed. Half an hour later, paratroopers were dropped in. Some of them walked within 175 yards of ground zero, where the radiation was probably over 100 roentgens.
For the most part these soldiers were never informed of the very real danger of radiation and many died horribly in the years afterwards.
On 11 August, the White House accepted the surrender terms and ordered the OWI to notify Japanese civilians. On 12 August, surrender information leaflet 2117 was dropped over
. On 14 August, a Military coup to take the Emperor hostage and carry on the war was unsuccessful. That same day the final conventional bombing mission of the war was flown, and the crews were told that if they received the code-word Apple they were to turn back as this would mean that Japan had officially surrendered. The code-word was not received and the B-29 bombers of the 315th Wing destroyed the Nippon Oil Company Refinery at Akita. Finally, at noon on 15 August, the Emperor's radio address of surrender was broadcast to the Japanese people. It was the first time the voice of the Japanese emperor was heard on the radio. He said in part: Japan
We have ordered Our Government to communicate to the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union that Our Empire accepts the provisions of their Joint Declaration... Should We continue to fight, it would not only result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization It is according to the dictate of time and fate that We have resolved to pave the way for a grand peace for all the generations to come by enduring the unendurable and suffering what is insufferable.
The war was officially over.
We will discuss leaflet 2117 first because it is the pre-surrender message. It informs the Japanese people of the surrender negotiations. Since The Japanese people believed from the government-controlled radio and press that they were winning the war, this must have come as quite a shock. The leaflet is 4 x 5-inches, black text on white paper.
Washingtonprepared the message and sent the text by telephone to . The translated text was forwarded to Honolulu Saipanby Radiophoto on 12 August. By midnight, 750,000 leaflets were printed, four to a sheet. The leaflets were immediately placed in leaflet bombs and dropped over on 13 August. Additional raids on 14 and 15 August brought the total count of leaflets disseminated up to 5,200,000. The text is extensive, so I have translated just a few pertinent paragraphs: Japan
To the Japanese People
These American planes are not dropping bombs on you today. American planes are dropping leaflets instead because the Japanese Government has offered to surrender and every Japanese has a right to know the terms of that offer and the reply made to it by the United States Government on the behalf of itself, the British, Chinese, and the Russian Government. Your government now has a chance to end the war immediately. You will see how the war can end by reading the two following official statements.
Message from the Japanese Government:
In obedience to the gracious command of His Majesty the Emperor, who ever anxious to enhance the cause of world peace desires earnestly to bring about an early termination of hostilities with a view to saving mankind from the calamities to be imposed upon them by the further continuation of the war, the Japanese Government several weeks ago asked the Soviet Government, with which neutral relations then prevailed, to render good offices in restoring peace vis-à-vis the enemy powers...
The Japanese government is ready to accept the terms enumerated in the joint declaration which was issued at
Potsdamon 26 July 1945 by the heads of government of the United States, Great Britainand China, and later subscribed to by the Soviet Union
Message from the
Government: United States
...From the moment of surrender, the authority of the Emperor and the Japanese Government to rule the state shall be subject to the supreme commander of the Allied powers who will take such steps as he deems proper to effect the surrender terms.
The Emperor will be required to authorize and insure the signature of the Government of Japan and the Japanese Imperial general headquarters of the surrender terms necessary to carry out the provisions of the Potsdam Declaration, and shall issue his commands to all the Japanese military, naval and air authorities and all of the forces under their control wherever located to cease active operations and to surrender their arms, and to issue such orders as the supreme commander may require to give effect to the surrender terms....
After the war, Mr. Kawagucki of the Home Ministry said that leaflet 2117 was one of the most effective single pieces of American propaganda dropped on
Hubert's note on leaflet 2117
A handwritten note by the Saipan OWI Chief of Station Richard Hubert says:
2117 This is the leaflet transmitted from Washington by phone and from Honolulu by radio-photo to us printed and delivered by B-29s on Japan in 24 hours from the time the text was phoned from Washington.
Huberts daughter told me:
August 15th stands high in my mind as the day Leaflet 2117 left Saipan for distribution over Japan. Initially I couldn't understand why dad gave greatest importance to that leaflet -- it had no pictures, it was not particularly eloquent, and it was much smaller than the rest (done "four up" on regular 8-1/2 x 11 paper). In his files I found two of the original run of 2117. They were racing against a mutual massacre and were responsible for delivering this message as soon as possible on direct orders from Washington. He was very proud of the allied civilian/military teamwork, and they did receive commendation from Secretary Byrnes. But to hear what the Japanese thought of this leaflet is satisfying beyond measure. The Allied psychological warfare in Pacific Theatre WWII was based on conveying accurate information to Japanese civilians. Japanese reaction to Leaflet 2117 reveals they had come to trust the information received via leaflet and KSAI radio from Saipan.
Admiral Nimitz mentions these final leaflet drops in his diary under the date 15 August 1945. He says:
Seven B-29s on 13-14 August dropped 5.5 million leaflets telling the Japanese people the terms of the Japanese surrender offer and the reply of Secretary of State Byrnes, plus the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. The populated centers Tokyo, Kobe, Osaka, Kyoto and Nagoya got most, but all islands were covered. Two B-29s on the 14th and four of the 16th are scheduled to drop 4 million leaflets on 31 major cities, keeping the Japanese people to date on negotiations.
Secretary of State James F. Byrnes thanked the staff in a 17 August 1945 dispatch sent through OWI
I am requested by Secretary Byrnes to send appreciation to everyone concerned for the magnificent work done in lettering, translating, printing, sending and distributing the important leaflet directly before the surrender of
. It is the belief of Secretary Byrnes as well as we in this office that the factor which helped to bring about the final surrender was this leaflet. Japan
Even as leaflet 2117 was in bombs inside the B-29s, the OWI started production on leaflet 2116. They printed 200,000 leaflets announcing the Japanese surrender, which were crated and ready for use when the final surrender occurred. The B29s were in radio contact and ready to turn around and bring leaflet 2117 back to
Saipanif the story of the surrender was announced.
B-29s of the 73rd Wing were at the disposal of the OWI now and MPs stood by, ready to provide escort to the trucks ready to rush the new leaflets 10 miles to the Isley Field.
On 15 August, the OWI print shop received orders to stop printing 2117 and concentrate on 2116. Instead of dropping leaflet bombs from 20,000 feet, the new leaflets would be dropped in bundles from 4000 feet. The OWI requested the cessation of all Japanese radio jamming so that Japanese anti-aircraft units would know that the war was over and not fire on the low-flying bombers. There were some reports of Japanese units continuing to fight and ignoring the ceasefire order from
. B-29 crew would have little chance of survival if hit at 4,000 feet. As a result, although ordered to drop the leaflets, the OWI on Tokyo Saipanmade a decision not to put the aircrews in danger. It was apparent that the Japanese now knew of the surrender through their own newspapers and radios, and there was no reason to risk the lives of American military personnel on a redundant mission.
Leaflet 2116 is once again a small 4 x 5-inch black and white all-text leaflet. It was prepared to inform the Japanese people of the surrender terms accepted by the Japanese Government. OWI records indicate that 1,100,000 copies of this leaflet were printed. The text is extensive so I have only translated a few pertinent paragraphs:
THE WAR IS OVER -
ACCEPTS ALLIED TERMS JAPAN
The United States, The United Kingdom, China and the Soviet Union have accepted the Japanese offer of surrender, with the provision that, "The authority of the Emperor and the Japanese government to rule the state shall be subject to the Supreme Commander of the Allied powers who will take such steps as he deems necessary to effectuate the surrender terms."
In accepting the terms, the Allied powers laid down the following conditions:
The Emperor will be required to authorize and insure the signature of the Government of Japan and the Japanese Imperial general headquarters of the surrender terms necessary to carry out the provisions of the Potsdam Declaration, and shall issue his commands to all the Japanese military, naval and air authorities and all of the forces under their control wherever located to cease active operations and to surrender their arms, and to issue such orders as the supreme commander may require to give effect to the surrender terms. Immediately upon the surrender, the Japanese Government shall transport prisoners of war and civilian internees to places of safety, as selected, where they can quickly be placed aboard Allied transports.
The ultimate form of Government of
Japanshall, in accordance with the Declaration, be established by the freely-expressed will of the Japanese people. The armed forces of the Allied powers shall remain in Potsdam Japanuntil the purposes set forth in the Declaration are achieved." Potsdam
The rest of the leaflet explained the Potsdam Proclamation and peace terms in detail. There are eight paragraphs that start with the text:
These are the terms of the Potsdam Proclamation which has been accepted by the Japanese government.
Since the text is rather long I will just translate the first paragraph:
There must be eliminated for all time the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest, for we insist that a new order of peace, security and justice will be impossible until irresponsible militarism is driven from the world
This translation might have been written by Otis Carys Japanese prisoner-of-war group. Otis Cary was a Navy linguist who had been born in Japan as the son of missionaries. Cary already spoke excellent Japanese, and after completing the Navys Japanese language school, he was commissioned as an ensign and sent to Hawaii to serve in Admiral Nimitzs Central Pacific Command. Cary took part in the American invasions of Attu and Saipan. In early 1945, he convinced a small group of Japanese prisoners held at a POW camp near Pearl Harbor to consider cooperating in Americas war efforts by writing propaganda. They first improved the effectiveness of the American propaganda newsletter, Mariana Jiho (Mariana Bulletin). However, the most significant project the group completed was the rapid translation of the Potsdam Declaration in July 1945.
The Last OWI Leaflet Dropped on
What may be the final OWI leaflet of WWII was numbered 2118. The official title of this leaflet is, "Imperial Rescript to all Subjects" on the front, and "Imperial Rescript to the Ministers of War and Navy" on the back. This leaflet informed all Japanese military forces and civilians at home and abroad of the Emperors two Imperial Rescripts concerning Japans surrender. The leaflet is all text and mentions the brave efforts of Japans fighting forces, the "cruel" atomic bomb, and the need for millions of Japanese citizens to survive the war. He warns against rebellion and outbursts of emotion and asks the people to realize that Japan will never perish and to accept defeat in good faith. OWI records indicate that 2,400,000 copies of this leaflet were printed. Some of the text is:
To our good and loyal subjects
After pondering deeply the general trends of the world and the actual conditions obtaining in Our Empire today, we have decided to effect a settlement of the present situation by resorting to an extraordinary measure.
We have ordered Our Government to communicate to the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union that Our Empire accepts the provisions of their Joint Declaration.
To strive for the common prosperity and happiness of all nations as well as the security and well-being of our subjects is the solemn obligation which has been handed down by Our Imperial Ancestors, and which we lay close to heart. Indeed, we declared war on America and Britain out of our sincere desire to secure Japan's self-preservation and the stabilization of East Asia, it being far from our thought either to infringe upon the sovereignty of other nations or to embark upon territorial aggrandizement. But now the war has lasted for nearly four years. Despite the best that has been done by everyone, the gallant fighting of the military and naval forces, the diligence and assiduity of our servants of the State and the devoted service of our one hundred million people, the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage, while the general trends of the world have all turned against her interest.
Moreover, the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb, the power of which to do damage is indeed incalculable, taking a toll of many innocent lives. Should we continue to fight, it would not only result in the ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but it would also lead to the total extinction of human civilization... it is according to the dictate of time and fate that we have resolved to pave the way for grand peace for all the generations to come by enduring the unendurable and suffering what is insufferable.
Let the entire nation continue as one family from generation to generation, ever firm in its faith in the imperishableness of its divine land, and mindful of its heavy burden of responsibilities, and the long road before it .
I asked an expert if the leaflet quoted the Imperial rescript correctly and he told me: Word for word.
Some of the more fanatical Japanese did not agree with the Emperor. In Report on Psychological Warfare in the Southwest Pacific Area 1944-1945. We find the comments:
The Emperor realized the risk he was taking, for the young militarists were determined to fight it out. He could expect therefore violent and fanatical counter-measures against the action upon which he had determined. His movement would be restricted; his Imperial rescript would be branded as a fake not to be followed
But the Emperor felt out airstrikes had discredited militarists in the eyes of the people; that the population was war-weary and that they had knowledge of and would accept the Potsdam Declaration and the Allied reply amplifying its terms. He accordingly issued his Imperial Rescript and broadcast it to the people, confident that somehow they would understand and permit his leadership to prevail
Japanese Navy planes flew over Tokyo between 14 and 24 August dropping leaflets to disregard the Imperial Rescript, advising that the Emperor was surrounded by traitors; that the war must continue.
Leaflet 5000 - Weekly Magazine
The highest leaflet I have found in my OWI Saipan files is 5001. These last two leaflets are not translated in the various OWI booklets. I suspect they were prepared in the last days of the war or shortly afterwards as consolidation leaflets in the form of illustrated newsletters. I have leaflet 5000 in two different sizes, 9.75 x 7.25-inches and 10.25 x 8-inches. It is entitled: Weekly Magazine. It has five photographs on the front and six on the back. All of the photos are in regard to Okinawa.
At the upper left on the front we see American troops with flamethrowers and explosives. The text is:
A 6th Division Marine flamethrower team on Okinawa blasts stubborn Japanese defenders.
At the upper right we see an American translator explaining how Okinawan survivors will be fed:
The activities of an American translator are seen explaining the distribution of food and supplies to local inhabitants.
At the lower left we see American troops watching an explosion and the text:
An American demolition team uses dynamite to destroy a Japanese bunker.
At the lower right, the women of Okinawa welcoming American soldiers with green tea.
American soldiers have removed their shoes to accept a friendly cup of green tea from Okinawan ladies.
The pictures seem to compare scenes of war and peace. In the center is a big fat mess sergeant reminiscent of the mess sergeant in Beetle Bailey holding a ladle filled no doubt with something tasty that he just cooked. Curiously, the ladle leaves a shadow on his chest that looks like the Japanese Hinomaru (what we called the rising sun meatball, the symbol of Japan). The text is in the form of a tanka, a short unrhymed poem of five lines, thirty-one syllables long, (5, 7, 5, 7, and 7 syllables each line) and talks about the idea of war reverting to peace; very Japanese and exotic:
If the hand holding a ladle will hold a gun, the Hinomaru on his breast would disappear someday
I did not understand the meaning of the tanka, and like Haiku the meaning can be mysterious and sometimes rely more on feeling than actual words. So, I asked an expert to explain the tanka and he said:
The poem suggests that as a friend to the USA the nation of Japan would be prosperous. The Hinomaru rising sun shadow on the fat belly of the cook implies prosperity, fatness, and peace. But if Japan were to treat the USA as an enemy the situation would be reversed, the same man would take up arms and Japan would be destroyed.
Clearly the OWI is telling the Japanese that Americans are friendly and can be trusted and with peace it is safe to go to them where they will be fed and treated well.
Because I knew so little about these last two items I did a thorough search of all my OWI files. I did not find the leaflets mentioned in any text, but I did find a chart entitled:
NUMBER AND QUANTITY OF EACH LEAFLET AND NEWSPAPER PRODUCED BY OWI ON SAIPAN 20 MAY TO 20 AUGUST 1945.
The line-graph is not what I would call really accurate, but it seems to indicate that 150,000 copies of Leaflet 5000 were printed in a category called Newspapers.
Leaflet 5001 Weekly Pictorial
This is the last leaflet in my file from Saipan. This large 10 x 8-inch leaflet is also called a newspaper in the line-graph mentioned directly above and indicates that 250,000 were printed after the photos were taken in June 1945. There are five photographs on each side, some showing destruction, others showing the friendly interaction between Japanese and American troops. These two leaflets seem to be the only examples of the pictorial newspapers prepared so late in the war. I will describe the five photos on the front and their translations.
The photo at upper left shows the Japanese city of Kobe aflame. The text is:
Kobe in flames. On 4 June, B-29s turn the city of Kobe into a field of ash using napalm incendiary bombs. The photo released by the commander of the XXI Bomber Command.
The photo at upper right shows an American B-29 bomber and an anti-aircraft gun. The text is:
A Japanese anti-aircraft gun is left behind on Saipan as a souvenir by the retreating Japanese. A B-29 bomber advances to strike the Japanese mainland.
The photograph in the center depicts a group of Japanese prisoners marching into a prison camp with the text:
Japanese soldiers enter the prisoner-of-war camp on Guam. The officers lead the men into the camp after their surrender to US Naval and US Marine Corps forces on 11 June. Thirty-five Japanese troops held out and resisted surrendering for almost 1 year.
The photo at bottom left depicts an American with a small boy. The text is:
A heartwarming scene of a young boy on Okinawa examining the binoculars of a US Coast Guardsman. The two have become friends.
The photo at bottom right shows an American officer speaking to a pair of Japanese officers. The text is:
American and Japanese officers have a conversation. A US Navy officer and a Japanese officer have a chat on 11 June. After the fall of Guam, the 35 Japanese troops led by these pair of officers had held out for nearly 1 year.
The Line graph prepared and colored by Hubert in his own hand as part of his final report on the number of leaflets prepared at the end of the war.
I should add that the line-graph mentioned about had several other comments that might be worth noting. It says that 150,000 miscellaneous surrender leaflets were printed for Pagan Island (about 200 miles north of Saipan) and now belonging to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and another 100,000 for Minami Tori Shima (Marcus Island), some 1,148 miles southeast of Tokyo and now again a part of Japan. No code numbers are given so we have no idea what surrender leaflets were printed and disseminated. In all, about 55,000,000 leaflets and newspapers were printed by Saipan in the last three months of the war.
Propaganda to the Occupied Nations
The OWI had stations all through the Pacific area during WWII. For example, millions of leaflets were printed and disseminated to the following countries: Burma (And the Kachins and Shans inside Burma); China; Malaya; Taiwan; Thailand; and Vietnam. Leaflets were also dropped on people long held by the Japanese like Korea and Okinawa. At the same time, the British and Australians had their own very successful leaflet programs.
Readers wanting to learn more about OWI leaflets to Burma click here, for OWI leaflets to China click here and for OWI leaflets to Thailand click here
The OWI ended the war with dozens of different leaflets sent to all the Japanese-occupied territories;
China, Korea, , etc., telling the people that the war was over. An example of these leaflets is CM-129 dated 12 August 1945 targeting all the people of Formosa . The leaflet bears the China and Chinese flags and says in part: United States
has surrendered! She has accepted the surrender terms imposed by the Japan United States, Great Britain, Chinaand the Soviet Union. The hostilities will cease at once. The gloomy and painful days you suffered for eight painful years are over and the dawn glows now Thus, Chinese friends, the final victory is here. You are happy. We are happy too
We should point out that other Allied nations also produced end of the war leaflets. For example, Australians FELO leaflet PK20 to the occupied peoples of
depicts a native symbol and the Pidgin-English text in part: New Guinea
ALL NATIVES HEAR THIS TALK
The Emperor of
has said that he has enough of this war. The war is finished. We have beaten them completely. Very soon all of the men of Japan will be in prison. You look out. The Japanese will be very cross with you. Keep away from them. If you see any Japanese, tell our soldiers. Japan
THE GOVERNMENT TALKS
The British Southeast Asia Command prepared a general leaflet for all the Allied prisoners of war in English, Dutch and Urdu. The translation is:
JAPAN SURRENDERS UNCONDITIONALLY
The Japanese have surrendered unconditionally and the war is over.
Allied aircraft are dropping leaflets in English, Dutch and Urdu giving instructions to Allied prisoners of war to remain quietly where they are.
Japanese guards must see that the prisoners get those leaflets and see that the prisoners are treated with every attention. The guards should then withdraw to their own quarters.
All Japanese officers and soldiers will be held personally responsible for the good treatment, care and proper feeding of all prisoners of war and internees.
Returning to the OWI on Saipan, on On August 17 the
Saipantransmitter KSAI went off the air. It had run day and night continuously for four months and seventeen days. On 7 September 1945 the oversight of forward area (Saipan) was transferred from the Office of War Information to the Information Services. On 31 October 1945 the Office of War Information offices in U.S. closed. On 12 March 1946 the Office of War Information offices in Honolulu closed. As we stated earlier, the majority of information in this article comes directly from The O.W.I. Saipan Operation: An account of operations on Washington D.C. Saipanfrom March 3, 1945 to February 15, 1946 with notes on the period July 1944 to March 2, 1945 by Richard S. R. Hubert. The report was written by Hubert in Honoluluand as he was returning to the United Statesfrom Saipan. I thank his daughter Josette for her kindness in letting me study through these rare and valuable historical files.
A member of the Japanese Foreign Office named Saito Hiroshi was captured on Iwo Jima and volunteered to work with the OWI. He wrote a long letter to the OWI at the end of the war telling what he thought of the propaganda operation. I quote some brief parts of the 4-page letter.
I firmly believe that the propaganda leaflets which were used in this war filled a major role hitherto unparalleled in world history and that they fulfilled the heavy responsibility of psychological warfare in the most effective manner I believe that in modern warfare, military operations can be most effective when a war of strategy which combines the two major elements of scientific warfare and psychological warfare is applied This new tactic is a most appropriate one to apply against a militaristic nation I believe that the use of propaganda leaflets in this war facilitated military operations and made them more effective.
The propaganda leaflets in this war had a direct and considerable influence on the Japanese people I cannot help but think that, to the Japanese, these leaflets served as a beacon which would guide them to a future new Japan The liberal ideas of the Japanese people were strengthened through reading the moralistic propaganda leaflets issued by the Americans By reading there leaflets, they began to hate their militaristic system and to desire the immediate termination of the war.
At the end of the war, most PSYOP agencies were asked to submit reports of what they had accomplished. The final report from Saipan states that they had printed 78,752,000 Office of War Information leaflets and another 19,749,000 Joint Intelligence Center, Pacific Ocean Area (Navy) leaflets. In addition, they printed 11,648,000 Japanese-Language newspapers, 270,000 Korean-language newspapers and 6,000 Chinese-language newspapers. The radio production from 26 December 1944 to 14 August 1945 was 5,076.5 hours. The Honolulu station KRHO broadcast another 4,321 hours which included 1,024 features, 2,135 newscasts, 1,373 musicals and 492 news commentaries.
An OWI Strategic Product - Roosevelt's Letter to Hirohito...
The OWI prepared brochures and leaflets in many languages. In this article we have depicted those tactical leaflets that were meant to be dropped on Japan and Japanese troops and allies during the war. Other OWI items were printed in numerous languages and disseminated world-wide in a more peaceful tone and meant to educate the reader rather than threaten him. Some examples of such OWI leaflets and brochures are: America and the War (French), The Four Freedoms (Dutch), America Prepares for War (Chinese), and even The U.S. Navy (English). Thousands of different brochures and leaflets were prepared by printing plants all over the world; wherever the OWI had an outpost. Unlike the rough finish on many of the wartime tactical items, these were very professional strategic printings to influence civilians and government leaders and produced on high quality paper.
The item above is President Roosevelt's Unanswered Letter to Emperor Hirohito. It depicts a letter from FDR to Emperor Hirohito and was meant to be dropped over Japan or Japanese territories, where it was designed to appeal to the Japanese sense of honor and shame and to inform the Japanese people of the real reason America declared war on Japan. This leaflet is folded once so can be considered a brochure. It is written in English and Japanese. Some of the text is:
On December 6, 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States, addressed a courteous and statesmanlike letter to His Imperial Majesty, Emperor of Japan. The letter was written in a final effort to avert war between the two countries and was forwarded to His Imperial Majesty through the usual diplomatic channels. The letter was never answered. It is unthinkable that any Japanese would be guilty of the gross discourtesy of ignoring a polite and important letter. On December 7, 1941 the Japanese armed forces attacked the United States in Hawaii. It is therefore quite obvious that the letter from President Roosevelt was never delivered to the Emperor. Had it not been kept from him, the war might well have been averted. The letter appears within.
Some copies of this Roosevelt letter to Hirohito were dropped on Japanese troops thought to be on Kiska. The leaflet in my collection is black and white. The one dropped on the Japanese on Kiska depicts the U.S. insignia in red, white and blue. The booklet American Propaganda Leaflets Aleutian Campaign says:
[This is one of the] psychological leaflets which have been used in the Aleutian Campaign. They were dropped on enemy occupied islands in order to lower the moral of the enemy or to cause doubts, dissatisfaction and to cause surrender. They were carefully prepared, in the light of known Japanese national psychology, in order to produce the greatest effect.
Booklet OWI Central Pacific Operations
At the end of the hostilities the OWI on Hawaii produced a booklet to illustrate and describe what they had done during the war. The cover depicts Chief Bradford Smith and the Honolulu OWI transmitter.
The section on leaflets depicts a number OWI artists and the following text about Honolulu operations:
Central Pacific Operations began its leaflet production as soon as headquarters was established in April 1944. Working in close collaboration with Joint Intelligence of the Central Pacific Ocean Area, the staff produced a total of 11,665,000 copies of leaflets and newspapers during its seventeen months of operations Texts and artwork for special leaflets, prepared in Honolulu, were transmitted by radiophoto to Saipan for printing and distribution .
On 20 December 1946, Captain C. J. Moore, Historical Section, Joint Chiefs of Staff, wrote to Hubert:
The Joint Chiefs of Staff have decided that a complete history of psychological warfare, as employed by the United States during World War II, should be prepared in order that that the war-time experiences gained along these lines may be preserved for the guidance and future use of the military services I desire to present Dr. Edward P. Lilly, the bearer of this letter, who has been given the task of preparing the history of psychological warfare for the Joint Chief of Staff. Since the resultant document will be a highly classified history, you need have no hesitancy in imparting information of a highly classified nature.
We know that in late 1944 Lilly was the designated O.W.I. historian. He wrote 800 pages of a draft history but in late 1945 the OWI and the book project was terminated. In 1946 he became a consultant to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and continued writing his monograph. This eventually became a 1,400-page classified study which he was unable to publish in a declassified form. Upon his death in 1994 his papers were given to the Eisenhower Library. The material required a page by page declassification. There are 29 boxes entitled The OWI series. Among the information is the draft of the history of the OWI which Lilly never finished.
On 18 April 1950, George S. Pettee, the Deputy Director of Human Resources Research of John Hopkins University wrote to Hubert:
The Operations Research Office of the Johns Hopkins University is attempting to compile a list of personnel who engaged in various aspects of psychological warfare during World War II
On 20 July 1950, William E. Daugherty wrote from John Hopkins:
This office is engaged in a current research project the purposes of which is to discover more effective standards for the selection, training and organization of psychological warfare personnel. In order to supplement material found in the archives, I desire to interview a number of individuals who participate in propaganda activities in World War II For many months I have wanted to have the opportunity of talking with you about your experiences in the Central Pacific, and especially on Saipan.
A Psychological Warfare Casebook
Daugherty and Hubert met on 27 July 1950. We dont know exactly what they talked about, but Daugherty published the book, A Psychological Warfare Casebook the John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, in 1958. The 880-page book was a collection of information relating to all phases of psychological warfare. Some of the articles that Richard Hubert might have assisted with are: U.S. Psychological Warfare Organizations in World War II, Personnel Qualifications for Psychological Warfare, and Use of Japanese Prisoners of War.
Perhaps it is best to end this report with the 25 September 1945 interrogation of Hideki Tojo, the Japanese wartime Prime Minister, and the man considered the major villain of WWII by many historians. He was questioned about his attitude toward American propaganda. The interviewer states:
The former Premier told interviewers he had never heard any foreign broadcasts. While in office, he saw occasional digests of intercepts. He said there was no comparison between the skillful explanations of facts by the Allies and the blundering fabrications of the Japanese.
He had been forced to alter his view toward leaflets. At first he had been confident that the Japanese people would be impervious to propaganda. He now believes, however, the proverb that what a Jap hears three times he believes. The Japanese did not have the resistance to propaganda he had anticipated.
While he admitted that sinkings and bombings also had their effect, there was no doubt in his mind that Allied leaflets had weakened the peoples will to fight and this shortened the war.
This concludes our study of the wartime training of the Pacific area OWI agent. Readers with comments are encouraged to write to the author at email@example.com.
© January 22, 2005