Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield
and Desert Storm
(Continued)

EUROPEAN COMMAND (EUCOM) LEAFLETS

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Five Pounds of EUCOM Leaflets

Although the PSYOP cells operated in Saudi Arabia under the guidance of the Central commend, there was also a smaller PSYOP presence in Turkey under EUCOM control. Many of the leaflets that were designed in Saudi Arabia were sent to Turkey by satellite to be produced there, in some cases by local civilian printers, and dropped in the northern part of Iraq. In general, the leaflets are very similar, but there are some printing differences in size and color that makes them easy to identify. One report states that there were only seven F-16 leaflet missions flown from Turkey with about three million leaflets disseminated. The EUCOM leaflets have always been more plentiful than the CENTCOM leaflets. That is strange because close to twenty million leaflets were printed in Saudi Arabia and just about ten million in Turkey. However, rumor had it that there was a lot of souvenir gathering up north. It is probably an exaggeration, but there were stories of military five-quarter ton trucks filled with leaflets leaving print shops and disappearing. One PSYOP soldier went so far as to say “if we printed ten million leaflets, five million went into duffle bags.” I know that after the war there were numerous offers of the banknote leaflets (E06-E11) in bulk. One fellow wrote to me and offered me 50 cents each if I would sign individual guarantees that about 10,000 of the leaflets that he had were genuine. I did see those same banknote leaflets later offered on eBay inside faux leather "wallets."

Mark Cox wrote to me on this very subject:

I was stationed at Incirlik Air Base in Turkey during the entire operation. After the war, boxes were set out for airmen to take them home as souvenirs; this is most likely why you see so many of them. 

Another person told me:

There were pallets upon pallets of the leaflets left after the mission ended. They were stored everywhere and the space was needed back at the Incirlik Airbase School amongst other facilities. It was a challenge to clear them out. Many leaflets were shipped back home.

Richard Johnson adds:

Initially, leaflets were distributed exclusively to flight crews, but eventually, flight, bomb, ground, and even routine maintenance crews became privy to the prolific source of souvenir PSYOP leaflets. Leaflet dispersion continued to escalate, until by war’s end, substantial amounts of leaflets were being regularly spirited away by a list of authorized recipients, which by that time had been expanded to include virtually anyone who petitioned them….

I should add that Johnson thinks five million leaflets were printed in Turkey and about two million went missing. The U.S. military says they printed close to ten million in Turkey and I always heard that about four million went missing.

Two decades after the end of the war there were still leaflets being offered in bulk. An individual offered no less than five pounds of EUCOM leaflets E13 and E14, and a pound and a third of leaflet E07 starting at $10 on the EBay Internet auction site in early 2013.

Note: In 2015, Decades after I wrote this story about so many leaflets just disappearing into thin air I read a comment by retired Colonel Layton G. Dunbar who was Commander of the 4th PSYOP Group at the time. He may explain all those missing leaflets:

When the Gulf War ended suddenly and quickly the soldiers’ thoughts turned to returning home. Desert Shield had become Desert Storm and now was about to become Desert Stampede. We had millions of prepared, printed, and approved leaflets on hand. A back hoe and fork lift solved that. Millions of unused leaflets were buried in the desert.

That may explain those millions of missing leaflets. Something similar happened in Vietnam as the Americans pulled out. They were ordered to burn all of the millions of old propaganda leaflets that were in the form of banknotes. They started to do so but it was a slow and tedious process. Eventually, they just used heavy machinery to bury them. Years later there were hundreds or thousands of Vietnam banknote leaflets on the market. Enterprising Vietnamese found the leaflets and dug them up to sell to souvenir seekers.

A word about Value

I think that the average reader might begin to believe after reading of the EUCOM leaflets that none of the Desert Storm leaflets have any value. That is not true. The leaflets that are generally so common are only those from Turkey. The United States did drop about 29 million leaflets from the sky and they were all free for the taking, but enemy governments usually demand that leaflets be gathered and destroyed immediately. That tends to build in a certain scarcity.

In general, most of the Desert Storm leaflets are worth from about $5 to $10. The vast majority is not really scarce and can be found with some hunting and good luck. However, there are some that are very scarce. The four “Blurry banknotes” (C61-64) from CENTCOM are extremely scarce and the set could cost $100 or more. The CIA banknotes (CIA2-CIA7) are even scarcer and you might pay close to $100 for a single specimen; the price driven up by currency collectors. The “dot” leaflets (C81-C85) are scarce and probably worth about $25 each. The French Al Salman leaflet is almost unknown and worth maybe $200 or more if you have a need to be “complete.” Most of the Iraqi leaflets are common and can be found, but some like I14 and I15 are so scarce that I have seen them sold for $100 each (and only on one occasion). So, although in general the collector should be willing to pay from $5 to $10 for perhaps 90% of all the Desert Storm leaflets, understand that when you get down to those last few really scarce ones, you might be paying in the three figures.

I do believe that the Army now realizes that leaflets make wonderful souvenirs and in Iraq and Afghanistan there has been much better security. Although some leaflets have come back as souvenirs, we no longer hear of foot lockers full being brought back by returning soldiers.

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E01

F: Joint Forces seal. 27 flags. Color. Paper.

B: Iraqi thinks of Coalition tanks and aircraft, thinks of wife and children "Brother Iraqi soldiers, our great tragedy is to want you to come back to Iraq dead or crippled."

This message was not quite grammatically correct. It was surely meant to say "our great tragedy is to not want you to come back to Iraq dead or crippled." The vignette is similar to the CENTCOM surrender leaflet C21, but that was in B&W. This leaflet is certainly more effective but there were numerous printing difficulties.  For instance, numerous color shifts exist. Sometimes the front and back is wholly or partially color shifted. Worse, in some the front and/or back are missing the red, yellow or blue color. This is the most error-prone leaflet of the war, probably due to the requirement of four separate runs through the color press.

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V01

F: Joint Forces seal. 27 flags. Color. Plastic-coated paper.

B: Iraqi thinks of Coalition tanks and aircraft, thinks of wife and children "Brother Iraqi soldiers, our great tragedy is to want you to come back to Iraq dead or crippled."

This leaflet is identical to E01 except that the paper has been coated with plastic to protect it against the sun and weather.

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E02

F: Bomb 78mm. B&W. As C31

"Warning! This is only the beginning. This could have been a real bomb. We have no desire to harm innocent people, but Saddam is leading you to certain death and destruction. We want you to know the truth! Saddam is the cause. Yes, the Multi-national forces have the ability to strike anywhere, and at any time. Warning!"

B: The truth...eight years of war with Iran. Half a million needless deaths. The victories - gone. Now, a generation in peril. A world united against Saddam. No bargaining with him. Don't allow him to be the reason for your annihilation. Don't let Saddam lead you to destruction." 11 lines. 87mm in length.

Just as a series of bomb leaflets was prepared in Saudi Arabia, the almost identical leaflets were prepared in Turkey. The difference is very minor and one must really study the leaflet to tell the difference. We have very little data about any of the bomb leaflets. We know that some were brought to Turkey initially, and others were printed there later. In general, information about the PSYOP Detachment’s work in Turkey is still a well-kept secret. There is a V02 bomb leaflet. It has been moved to the “CIA Leaflets” section.

V02

F: Bomb 78mm. B&W. As E02.
"Warning! This is only the beginning..."

B: The truth...eight years of war with Iran..." 11 lines. 82mm in length.

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  E03

F: Bomb 93mm. B&W. As C32.
"Warning! This is only the beginning..." .

B: "Saddam Hussein's policy of aggression towards neighboring countries is the sole reason for the bombing of Iraq and the targeting of military positions. The sole blame lies on Saddam Hussein." (9 lines)

 

V03

F: Bomb 78mm. B&W. As E03.
"Warning! This is only the beginning..." .

B: "Saddam Hussein's policy of aggression towards neighboring countries is the sole reason for the bombing of Iraq and the targeting of military positions. The blame lies on Saddam Hussein." (9 lines)

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E04

F: Bomb 93mm. B&W. As C33.
"Warning! This is only the beginning..."

B: "Iraqi military forces: Saddam Hussein's policy of aggression is the only reason for the bombing of Iraq. The bombing is for military targets only. The Multi-national air forces have overwhelming air superiority. Resistance is useless. The outcome is inevitable. Save yourselves. Leave your weapons and immediately go to a safe area. Saddam is to blame!" 12 lines.

 

V04

F: Bomb 78mm. B&W. As E04.
"Warning! This is only the beginning..."

B: "Iraqi military forces: Saddam Hussein's policy of aggression is the only reason for the bombing of Iraq. The bombing is for military targets only. The Multi-national air forces have overwhelming air superiority. Resistance is useless. The outcome is inevitable. Save yourselves. Leave your weapons and immediately go to a safe area. Saddam is to blame!" 12 lines.

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E05

F: Bomb 93mm. B&W. As C34.
"Warning! This is only the beginning..."

B: "The truth...Saddam has isolated you from the world. The Arab League, Muslim World League, and United Nations have all condemned Saddam's actions. Forces from 28 countries have assembled as a direct result of his actions and more countries join daily. Don't let Saddam lead you to destruction!!" 11 lines.

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E06

F: 25-dinar banknote. Color. 164x73mm. Serial number 0473385

B: Cartoon of Iraqi soldier carrying Saddam on his back. Sign reads "Shatt al Arab."
"I have carried you for 11 years. I have no strength to carry you anymore.

This version of the 25 dinar note is certainly the most colorful of the six varieties. It uses the same vignette as CENTCOM leaflet C02. Like many of the EUCOM color leaflets there are errors. In this leaflet the back has been found with the black ink missing from the text in the bubble and on the sign. According to an Army Lieutenant Colonel who was stationed in Heidelberg, the six EUCOM 25-dinar Saddam banknotes were printed in an engineer topological map company's shop in the military post at Seckenheim, Germany. They had a four-color lithograph press used for printing maps and were easily able to convert to the printing of the propaganda banknotes.

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E07

F: 25-dinar banknote. Color. As E06.

B: "Saddam's daily ration for you is ? The daily ration for Coalition forces soldiers is: Breakfast: eggs, bread and butter, meat, two fruits, juice, milk, coffee and tea. Lunch: meat, beans or potatoes, biscuits and cheese, candy, juice and coffee. Dinner: meat, bread and butter, vegetables, cake, milk, juice, coffee and tea. Prisoners are fed the same meal as the Coalition soldiers."

This note is effective because it tells the Iraqis what their enemy is eating on a daily basis and says that they can share in the same meals.

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E08

F: 25-dinar banknote. Color. As E06.

B: "Safe conduct pass. You do not have to die. You can be safe and return to your family and loved ones if you cease resistance. You must follow these steps strictly: 1. Remove the magazine from your weapon. 2. Sling your weapon over your left shoulder with the muzzle down. 3. Raise your arms above your head. 4. Approach positions slowly. Hold this pass in your hand above your head. 5. If you do this you will not die. You will be treated well and someday return to your family. NOTE: Beware of mine fields along the border. The Iraqi soldiers that carry this safe conduct pass are using it as a sign of their sincere desire to cease resistance and be removed from the battlefield. They are to be disarmed, to be well treated, to receive food and water, and medical treatment if necessary. Safe conduct pass. Commander, Combined forces."

A safe conduct pass that is written in a very caring and sympathetic way. Notice that the writer worries about the safety of the Iraqis who might enter a mine field.  Notice also the use of the words “cease resistance” instead of surrender. That lesson was learned while fighting the Japanese in WWII.

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E09

F: 25-dinar banknote. Color. As E06.

B: "Attention V Corps soldiers: Saddam is leading you to death and dishonor. Do not obey his orders. If all the tires on your truck are cut, it cannot move. If your tank is mired in the mud, it cannot move into battle. If your weapons can't fire, you don't have to fight. If your radio does not work, you can't hear your leader's orders. Do not die for Saddam! Live for Islam!" 14 lines.

The V Corps was stationed along Iraq's northern border. It consisted of five infantry divisions. Since this leaflet targets them specifically, we might consider it a tactical leaflet.

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E10

F: 25-dinar banknote. Color. As E06.

B: There is no difference between your money and this piece of paper. Worthless money is plentiful in the land and deprivation is spreading. No remedy is present. The suffering is growing. There is no nourishment, but there is filth. There is no soap or water to be found. The darkness has settled. The electricity is cut. You are in distress. You have needs, but your wife is not with you. You are afraid of Saddam, but you do not disobey. You are in eminent danger of death, but have no plans to change it. Oh people of Iraq, you still have the right to do something, yet you are sitting in your house. Oh soldiers, oh civilians, oh elders, oh youth, oh women, oh men. The time has come for you to respond to the call of duty. Rise up and flood the streets and alleys for the overthrow of Saddam and his supporters." 19 lines.

This variant of the banknote leaflet uses inflation as a theme. This is a popular theme and can be found on leaflets as far back as WWII and Vietnam.

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E11

F: 25-dinar banknote. Color. As E06.

B: "The money of Iraq has no value. There is no food, no peace, no happiness in Iraq. There is thirst, there is hunger, there is misery, and there is death in Iraq. Saddam is responsible for all this misery! Act against Saddam now! His fall is inevitable." 5 horizontal lines.

This leaflet uses the theme “Saddam is to blame.” It was a favorite theme of the Coalition. For those who might want to start a small collection of these banknotes I should mention that excellent reproductions of all six banknote leaflets exist. Some of the commercial reproductions (printed in NYC about the time of the war) are larger, measuring 173x77mm. A second reproduction (printed in Mississippi) has a purple hue and measures 162x72mm.

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E12

F: Face of Saddam. B&W. Grey paper. As C65.
"The cold face of death in war."

B: "Oh sons of Iraq! In death you lengthen the life of Saddam, but you shorten the life of your homeland, Iraq."

This leaflet was first printed in Saudi Arabia as C65. On white paper. In Turkey it was printed on a gray background.

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E13

F: Saddam walking away from smeared Iraqi flag. Color. 145x75mm.
"Saddam is the only reason for the bombing of Iraq." As C73.

B: "It is the actions of Saddam Hussein which have forced the world to war with Iraq. The Joint Air Forces are making a great effort to avoid injuring innocent civilians. If Saddam puts Iraqi civilians in military headquarters to die instead of his thugs, then by this he shows he is ready to sacrifice all of you, the holy places, and the history of Iraq for his survival."

This leaflet uses the CENTCOM leaflet C73 but modifies it slightly.

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E14

F: Military equipment in civilian neighborhood. B&W. 143x74mm.
"Innocent civilians are Saddam's first line of defense."

B: "It is the actions..." Text same as C74.

This leaflet uses the CENTCOM leaflet C74 but modifies it slightly.

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E15

F: Saddam swings sword, cuts own head off. B&W.
"Oops" and "Thud" in English.

B: "30 February 1991. Saddam's prediction: Be assured that I will solve the problem of Kuwait by the 30th of February..."

This leaflet was prepared as a cartoon to be sent to the Ft. Bragg newspaper Paraglide. It was never meant to be disseminated in Iraq, but was apparently dropped by accident. There is no “30 February.”

LTC Randal R. Jones of the 4th PSYOP Group said in 1991 in regard to this "error" distribution:

The leaflet was drawn by an artist in the 4th PSYOP Group. It was not distributed to opposing forces but was done as a cartoon within the command. The point of the cartoon is that nothing will occur on 30 February since 30 February doesn't exist. This point would certainly be lost on a Southwest Asian audience given their use of the Arabic calendar.

He is correct that the 4th did not distribute the leaflets from Saudi Arabia. He was surely unaware that EUCOM in Turkey did distribute them.

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U.S. News and World Report magazine article, 16 march 1992 with the "Oops" leaflet

We spoke to artist Tim Wallace about this leaflet in 2009. He said:

I had been sending the various political cartoons back stateside to the Ft. Bragg newspaper “Paraglide” and someone mistook it for a PSYOP product when they saw it in my work-area. It was mass produced without my knowledge, and dropped somewhere North around the Turkey border.

Later a reporter from U.S. News and World Report found the leaflet on the ground and had it published in their news magazine of 16 March 1992. Back in those days one of my goals was to have my work published in national magazine like U.S. News and World Report, and I guess I did reach that goal, just not the way that I imagined. 

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E16

F: 3-fold cardboard downed pilots card. B&W.
In English and Turkmen: "Dear brother, I am a public servant working for freedom and for peace and stability in the region. In the name of Allah, please help me return to friendly areas, so I can continue the struggle for peace."

B: In English and Arabic. Same text.

The CENTCOM pointee-talkie card for pilots had three folds. This card made for the pilots by EUCOM has just two folds.

NO CODE

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F: Saddam with beheading knife labeled "UN." B&W. 280x215mm.
On arm holding Saddam's throat: "The world."

B: "Time is not going to help you. 15 January will arrive soon!!

This large cardboard handout is not in Johnson’s book. Had it been, I think he would have placed it in the “failed leaflets” section.

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EUCOM JTF PROVEN FORCE product book

That is the last of the leaflets that we know were prepared in Turkey. However, there may have been more in storage awaiting a request for use. Or, at least there were more on the drawing board. We know this because we have seen what appears to be a EUCOM product book. The book is entitled JTF PROVEN FORCE - COMBINED PSYOP TASK FORCE - VAN KEDISI - DESERT STORM. Besides the text, there is what appears to be a shield on the cover and in the center the face of a Turkish Van Cat (Van Kedesi), a very rare pure-breed cat from the area around Lake Van in Turkey, famous for having eyes of different color.  I have no idea why this image was used on a PSYOP product book.  There is also a second cover version with the Turkish title BIRLESIK PSIKOLOJIK  HAREKATGOREVUVVETI 1991 - VAN KEDESI - COL FIRTINASI.

Some of the leaflets in the book are those that were actually prepared and dropped. They bear product numbers different from the leaflets prepared in Saudi Arabia. For instance, the 2-fold pointee-talkie card (E016) is called "Downed pilot card A003" and the full-color safe conduct pass (E01) is numbered "A008." In addition, the bomb leaflets (E02-E04), the banknote leaflets (E05-E11), and the rest of the leaflets that were disseminated (E12-15) are illustrated in the book. What are far more interesting are the leaflets that were not disseminated. There are a dozen more leaflets that were apparently available for distribution but not selected. Most of them seem crude and "busy," so it is possible that they were just concepts that would have been cleared up if there had been a demand for the product. The photocopying for the booklet in black and white might have also lost some of the detail. Some examples of the type of leaflets found in the book are A005, which shows an Iraqi soldier asking for food and being rejected by his own superiors, but being offered food by a Coalition soldier. This leaflet and the following two have a safe conduct message on the back identical to E08, "You do not have to die..." A014 depicts a whirlwind riding on a tank and carrying a sword with the text, "Flee before you are overwhelmed by the Desert Storm." Leaflet AO20 use the vignette of the dead soldier from Saudi leaflet C06 on the front, "Fighting for Saddam means death."

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EUCOM Product Book Leaflet A013 "Forces for Peace"

This leaflet depicts the Joint Forces seal, a Coalition soldier, a stealth aircraft, a M1A1 Abrams tank and a battleship firing a Tomahawk missile on the front, with the text:

Iraqi soldiers, in spite of our strength...

The back depicts an Iraqi soldier with his AK47 rifle thinking of his mother, father, wife and baby at home. The text is:

We will not withhold our compassion to return you to your family. Think about it.

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EUCOM Product Book Leaflet A023
"Saddam pumping blood from the Iraqi people"

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EUCOM Product Book Leaflet A027 “Scorpion.”

Other product book leaflets are nastier, depicting Saddam pumping the blood from the Iraqi people into his own arm, as a scorpion, or dragging the Iraqi people into Hell. All of the illustrations are in black and white (although the book mentions that some were produced in color) and not as finely drawn as we might expect. But, as I said, if the leaflet had been selected for distribution it is possible that some final improvements and fine-tuning would have been undertaken.

OPERATION SOUTHERN WATCH

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General Schwarzkopf and Iraqi Generals at Safwan

With the defeat of the Iraqi forces in Kuwait, General Schwarzkopf called a meeting at Safwan where he dictated the terms of the surrender. On 3 March 3, 1991 General Schwarzkopf met with eight Iraqi officers, led by General Sultan Hashim Ahmad to sign the cease-fire agreement. During the discussions, the Iraqis asked permission to fly humanitarian helicopter flights over Iraq to move medicines, food, supplies and people where they were needed. After all, Iraq’s road system was destroyed by U.S. bombing. Schwarzkopf mentions the conversation in It Doesn’t Take a Hero.

General Ahmad: This has nothing to do with the front line. This is inside Iraq.

Schwarzkopf: As long as it is not over the part we are in, that is absolutely no problem. So we will let the helicopters, and that is a very important point, and I want to make sure that’s recorded, that military helicopters can fly over Iraq. Not fighters, not bombers. Then Ahmad said something that should have given me pause.

Ahmad: So you mean that even the helicopters that are armed can fly in Iraqi skies but not the fighters? Because the helicopters are the same, they transfer somebody …

Schwarzkopf: Yeah. I will instruct our Air Force not to shoot at any helicopters that are flying over the territory of Iraq where we are not located. In the following weeks, we discovered what the son of a bitch had really had in mind: using helicopter gunships to suppress rebellions in Basra and other cities.

The Iraqis immediately took advantage of Schwarzkopf’s kindness and proceeded to attack the Shi’ites in the South of Iraq with helicopter gunships. Schwarzkopf later publicly stated, "I was suckered."

There is a rumor that Schwarzkopf might have believed that allowing the helicopters to fly would support an Iraqi military plot to overthrow Saddam Hussein. If this undocumented report is true, it would mean that either he simply believed a false rumor, or was fed a rumor by the Iraqi generals as part of a black operation with the full knowledge that the gunships would be used against the Shi’ites that had risen in the south of Iraq.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 688, passed in April 1991, demanded that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein end the military bombing and strafing attacks against the Shi’ite Muslims in Southern Iraq. He ignored the resolution. In order to protect the Shi’ites, the United States authorized Operation Southern Watch, which banned all flights below the 32nd Parallel in Southern Iraq. The first Southern Watch sortie was flown 27 August 1992.

Four leaflets were prepared and disseminated during this operation. They are fairly rare because at this stage of the conflict the American troops were out of the southern zone and unable to pick up souvenirs. No numbers are known, but it is suspected perhaps one million of each leaflet was printed. For those interested in how the United States answered what were considered to be further Iraqi provocations, I suggest they read my articles on Operation Desert Fox and The No-Fly Warning Zone Leaflets to Iraq.

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Leaflet U01

This leaflet depicts various American and Allied fighters attacking Iraqi fighters and helicopters below the 32nd Parallel. Text on the front is:

To fly past this boundary line will result in death.

The back is all text and says:

An announcement to all Iraqi aircraft. Saddam’s continual persecution of the Iraqi citizens that live in the South of Iraq is violating the United Nations Resolution 688 and has caused that area south of the 32nd parallel to be protected. Any Iraqi pilots flying in the air over that protected area will be shot down.

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Leaflet U02

This leaflet depicts Saddam Hussein trying to hide a bomb-like missile while talking to a United Nations Inspector. In the background a US “Stealth” aircraft drops bombs.  The text on the front is:

Your slyness and your deception have caused this destruction

The back is all text and says:

And here, for the second time, protecting Saddam has brought shame and destruction to the Iraqi people. He refused to obey the United Nations Resolutions that he agreed upon with the Heads of State and as a result the people are suffering. His continuing to refuse to provide needed information, and refusing to let the United Nations inspectors perform their duty, and not surrendering all the weapons of mass destruction is the reason that more suffering is inflicted upon you. We always try to prevent damage to civilians, but we are going to follow every step to force Saddam to comply with his promises.

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Leaflet U03

This leaflet shows a bloody Iraqi flag and is similar to earlier leaflets C73 and E13. There is no text on the front. The back is all text and says:

The destruction that you are facing is a result of your government’s holding back important information, not allowing the United Nations Representatives to do their job of inspecting and not surrendering your government’s weapons of mass destruction. Your government has refused to follow the United Nations Resolution which it agreed to do. We do not wish to harm Iraqi civilians in any way and have done everything possible to prevent harm to them. Continuing to disregard the United Nations Resolution by the Iraqi government will result in more pain and destruction to the Iraqi people.

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Leaflet U04

This leaflet depicts Iraqi weapons that have been placed near schools and mosques. It is similar to leaflet C74 and E14, except that this leaflet is in color while the earlier leaflets were black and white. The text on the front is:

We take every precaution to protect against destruction.

Does Saddam take these same precautions?

The back is all text and says:

The government of Saddam Hussein has tricked you again. By Resolutions and agreements in conjunction with the Heads of State, he agreed to permit United Nations representatives to inspect all government agencies, and to surrender all of the weapons of mass destruction that he had. Because of his refusal in these areas, he has sparked the fires of war again. We only want to fulfill the United Nations ruling that was agreed upon by the Iraqi government

Before we leave the subject of Coalition leaflets we should study an official military report that evaluated their good and bad points. Colonel James P. Noll wrote a 164-page evaluation on his unit's mobilization entitled, The 13th Psychological Operations Battalion (EPW) During Mobilization, Desert Shield / Desert Storm and Demobilization.

Some of the finer points of the evaluation are as follows.

The 13th PSYOP Battalion (EPW) was the only battalion with an enemy prisoner of war mission. The Army Reserve unit was headquartered in Ft. Snelling, Minnesota. In 1990 it was augmented with several PSYOP companies, a new modular printing system (four trailers and four printing presses), new LSS-40 speaker systems and an Arabic-speaking warrant officer named David Juba. The Battalion deployed to the Gulf and was headquartered in Al-Khobar Towers, Saudi Arabia. It assigned one PSYOP team to each 800th Military Police Brigade prison camp. The Battalions mission was; to act as a force-multiplier for the Military Police, to pre-test and post-test PSYOP products, to develop intelligence from enemy prisoners of war (EPWs), and to identify Iraqis willing to provide language or other skills. They soon discovered that the Iraqis had no code of conduct and as a result would tell the Americans anything they wanted to know.

Some of the intelligence gathered by the Battalion and forwarded to the 4th PSYOP Group was:

Successful leaflets.

1. The plate of fruit leaflets were the most popular.

2. Soldiers should be depicted with beards (they represent honesty and sincerity to Arabs) and fruit plates should depict bananas (a favorite fruit of the Iraqis).

3. Invitations to surrender were more effective than threats.

4. Leaflets giving clear surrender instructions were more effective than appeals without instructions.

5. Leaflets with illustrations on how to surrender were more effective than appeals without illustrations.

6. The B-52 leaflets and the coffin on car leaflet influenced some EPWs.

Unsuccessful leaflets

1. Caricatures of Iraqi soldiers portraying weakness, fear, or other negative emotions tended to increase resistance.

2. U. S. and Joint Forces symbols and Coalition flags on surrender leaflets tended to confuse the Iraqis.

3. The color red meant danger and leaflets with red borders were avoided by the Iraqis as a result.

4. The Iraqis did not recognize Saddam Hussein in the leaflets that caricatured him.

5. The worst leaflet was the one showing the jet fighter with Iranian markings. The Iraqis had no idea what the 'X" meant and did not recognize the Iranian flag.

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