Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield
and Desert Storm
(Continued)

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  Genuine Iraqi 25 Dinar Banknote


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C61

F: Blurred 25-dinar bank note. Color. Serial #0703356.

B: "Saddam has made your money worthless while he hoards gold."

All of these banknote leaflets are identical on the front and each has a different message on the back. The Saudis were very hesitant to appear to be forging Iraqi currency. As a result, these banknotes were made oversized and purposely blurred. I wrote about the banknote leaflets at the time of the war and shortly afterwards. In all, there were 16 different banknote leaflets in the form of an Iraqi 25 dinar note and there was confusion about when and where they were produced. I did a detailed article for the International Banknote Society Journal in winter 1991 and illustrated and translated all of the banknotes from Turkey at that time. We will discuss them later when we come to the European Command (EUCOM) section. I wrote a follow-up article in the same journal in summer 1994 where I described and translated the Saudi Arabian notes (which we usually call the "blurry" notes) and what for the lack of a better term I call the "CIA" notes, a much smaller version of the 25 dinar leaflet. This "Counterfeiting" was a delicate operation for the Saudis and very little is known about dissemination of the leaflets. We do know that a total of 179,000 25 dinar banknote leaflets were printed, but nothing else. There is some documentation that implies these banknotes were the first leaflets prepared in full color in Saudi Arabia.

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C62

F: Blurred 25-dinar bank note. As C61.

B: "Saddam lives in luxury while you and your family starve."

Leaflet C62 was some part of the initial printing of 179,000 banknotes, but we do not know the exact number.

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C63

F: Blurred 25-dinar bank note. As C61.

B: "You cannot cleanse your hands when they have been stained by the blood of innocent Arabs."

Leaflet C63 was some part of the initial printing of 179,000 banknotes, but we do not know the exact number.

 

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C64

F: Blurred 25-dinar bank note. As C61.

B: "No amount of money will buy back your honor."

Leaflet C62 was some part of the initial printing of 179,000 banknotes, but we do not know the exact number. Documentation indicates that these were the first leaflets prepared in full color in Saudi Arabia.

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C65

F: Face of Saddam. B&W. 95 x 135mm. White paper.
"The cold face of death and war."

B: "Oh sons of Iraq! In death you lengthen the life of Saddam, but you shorten the life of your homeland, Iraq."

There is no information on production or dissemination of this leaflet.

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C66

F: Four Iraqi soldiers leave the scene of battle, B&W.
"Escape to your home." Sign reads "Iraq."

B: Overwhelming might of Allied forces.

There is no information on production or dissemination of this leaflet. A minor variation exists with some shading of aircraft on back and other small differences.

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The Kuwaiti Water Towers
Photograph from the author's personal collection.

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C67

F: Iraqi holding white cloth overhead. B&W.
"Raise a white flag."

B: Overwhelming might of coalition forces. Similar to C66.
"Staying here means death."

The front of this leaflet shows three minarets in the background. These are the Kuwait towers, which contain water storage and a rotating restaurant. They are a tourist attraction and symbol of Kuwait. The initial request was for 31,000 leaflets. Allegedly the Coalition's Arab partners found this leaflet insulting because the Iraqi appeared to have a diaper over his head. One early version had the soldier standing in front of an Iraqi flag, but that was quickly changed. Whether the story is true or not, there were massive quantities in the inventory at the end of the war so it is possible that they were not disseminated.

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C68

F: 4 Iraqi tanks under wave of Allied aircraft. B&W
"Desert Storm (Sahara Whirlwinds) is coming to your area. Flee immediately."

B: In Red: "Iraqi citizens. Saddam's military has placed your lives in danger. The Coalition forces are coming. We will begin striking this area soon. We do not wish to harm innocent civilians. Evacuate this area immediately and head north. Civilian areas in Baghdad will not be targeted. Flee Immediately."

This leaflet was known by the Coalition as “Desert Storm.” Internal codes were “3M” and “37L-06-1.”500,000 copies were printed on 29 January 1991. All the leaflets were later air-dropped between 16 and 18 February. This leaflet was drawn by artist Tim Wallace. He said:

I wanted to create a lasting image and capture the spirit of what a desert storm might look like for this leaflet. The target was the Iraqi people. We wanted them to flee and clog the roads with traffic thus impeding Iraqi troop movement in the upcoming war.

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C69

F: Kuwait flag. Color. 115x57mm.

B: Kuwait flag. Color. As above.

There are four leaflets in the form of a Kuwaiti flag. They are all identical in size and color, but C70 to C72 have a short propaganda message on the front and back in the white central portion of the flag. There is no information on production or dissemination of the flag leaflets.

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C70

F: "The deaths of the martyrs will be avenged."

B: "Saddam has defiled our lands."

A total of 280,000 leaflets of C70 to C72 were printed. There is no information on dissemination of this leaflet.

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C71

F: "Free Kuwait." ("free" used as an adjective)

B: "If you follow Saddam you will become nonexistent."

A total of 280,000 leaflets of C70 to C72 were printed. There is no information on dissemination of this leaflet.

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C72

F: "Free Kuwait" ("free" used as an imperative verb)

B: "Worship God, don't serve Saddam."

A total of 280,000 leaflets of C70 to C72 were printed. There is no information on dissemination of this leaflet.

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C73

F: Saddam walking away from smeared Iraqi flag. Color. 55x78mm. Black border.
"Saddam is the only reason for the bombing of Iraq."

B: "It is the actions of Saddam Hussein which have forced the world to war with Iraq. The Joint Air Forces are making a great effort to avoid injuring innocent civilians. If Saddam puts Iraqi civilians in military headquarters to die instead of his thugs, then by this he shows he is ready to sacrifice all of you, the holy places, and the history of Iraq for his survival."

Colonel Borchini of the 4th Group said about this leaflet:

We called this Gulf War leaflet the “Bloody Flag” that basically explained to the Iraqi soldiers and civilians that Saddam was the reason for Iraq fighting in this war. Blaming that entire mess on Saddam was one of the things that we stressed, placing the blame of that war on Saddam alone.

This is another case where you will see that a EUCOM leaflet is almost identical to this Saudi product. 1,000,000 leaflets were initially requested. 360,000 of the leaflets were dropped. This leaflet was designed by 4th PSYOP Group artist Tim Wallace. Notice that Tim does a very good face of Saddam. He complained that some other artists made Saddam faces that the Iraqi soldiers did not recognize.

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C74

F: Military equipment in civilian neighborhood. B&W. Black border.
"Innocent civilians are Saddam's first line of defense."

The Final Report to Congress Conduct of the Persian Gulf War says in regard to this leaflet:

One leaflet depicted a mosque and a schoolyard, in which Saddam Hussein had liberally interspersed tanks, anti-aircraft artillery guns, and other military equipment. The message to the Iraqi soldier was that Saddam Hussein was deliberately endangering their religion and families.

Another leaflet that is almost identical to a EUCOM leaflet printed in Turkey. 1,000,000 leaflets were initially requested and 480,000 of the leaflets were immediately dropped. By the end of the war the Coalition dropped 640,000 leaflets.

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C75

F: All Arabic text. Red.
"Citizens of Basra. The mechanized armies of Saddam are destroying Kuwait, where homes are set on fire and innocent civilians are murdered. Great atrocities are committed against a sister Arab country. In the coalition forces carry out a counter-attack, the people of Iraq will pay a heavy price for Saddam, the destruction of the city of Basra. You do not have much time to consider! We do not want you to die because of Saddam. You should leave the city immediately before destructive bombs fall on you.

B: All Arabic text. Red.
"Citizens of Iraq. Be careful. Your city could be destroyed. Leave at once! Do not allow anyone to stop your escape from the city! Encourage your military friends to flee with you. If you stay in Basra you will expose yourself to great danger. Leave the city at once."

This leaflet comes in various shades of red but it is not significant enough to call them variants. Red ink has a habit of changing shades. 300,000 leaflets were initially printed. 200,000 were dropped on 27 February.

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C76

F: English text. B&W
"Stay in your homes!! Do not approach the coalition forces!! Hostile action is imminent in this area!! Stay in your homes and you will be safe!! To approach the coalition forces is to place your life in danger!! The coalition forces wish you no harm!! Stay in your homes!!

B: Arabic text. Message same as above.

This leaflet is found in various shades of gray and black, but again, not enough to call them variants. The text indicates that  this leaflet was prepared for use as Coalition forces probed deep inside Kuwait. It warns the friendly citizens to stay inside for their own safety. The internal code-name is “Stay in Place (101st Airborne),” so we can assume that the leaflets were handed out by the Airborne division after it deployed deep into Iraq in the early hours of the war.  200,000 leaflets were initially printed. There is no record of them being disseminated.

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C77

F: Text for civilians. Cardboard. B&W.
English; " ATTENTION! ATTENTION! ATTENTION! This message is from the United States Army. We do not wish to harm you. Do not panic. Military operations are imminent. For your own safety leave the area immediately."

B: Same message in Arabic.

The text of this leaflet indicates that it was prepared as United States Army forces advanced deep into Kuwait. It warns the friendly citizens to stay inside for their own safety. There is no data on production or dissemination. Because it was made of cardboard it was likely meant to be handed to local citizens and not meant to be airdropped.

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C78

F: Text for civilians. Cardboard. B&W. 92x78mm.
English: "Leave the area immediately. Due to military necessity, we must ask you to follow our instructions to insure your safety. We are not here to harm you. Military operations are imminent. You need to leave the area immediately. Do not return until told to do so by the authorities."

B: Same message in Arabic

The text of this leaflet indicates that it was prepared as Coalition forces advanced deep into Kuwait. It warns the friendly citizens to stay inside for their own safety. There is no data on production or dissemination. Because it was made of cardboard it was likely meant to be handed to local citizens and not meant to be airdropped

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C79

F: Dove of peace over Kuwait. 7 signs in ground. B&W.
"Saddam is against peace; Help Iraq, stop Saddam; No more war; Peace now; Help Iraq, Iraq unite against Saddam; Confront...(sign blocked)."

B: Citizens of Iraq. Saddam is the cause of the war and its sorrows. He must be stopped. Join with your brothers and demonstrate rejection of Saddam's brutal policies. There will be no peace with Saddam.

This leaflet was known to the Coalition as “Doves of Peace.” The internal codes were “4F” and “6G-01-1.” 500,000 of these leaflets were initially printed on 24 February 1991. A mission was planned but apparently never occurred. Artist Tim Wallace designed and drew this leaflet. He said:

Another leaflet directed at the civilian population of Iraq reminding them of who was to blame for the impending war.

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C80

F: Large 21 x 15cm all Arabic text leaflet. Paper. B&W.
The first of two long paragraphs. "In the name of God the Compassionate the Merciful. My brothers the children of Iraq! Everyone asks himself, do we need Kuwait? Our country is fertile, and thank God, we have oil. During the reign of the Abbasids 30 million people lived in this area enjoying the best life in the world. We therefore do not need Kuwait, nor its money, nor even its oil. God has made us free of want, so why do we destroy our country and kill our children for Kuwait? Kuwait is an independent state, We might like or dislike their rulers but that doesn’t matter. What is important is that Kuwait exists in peace and safety and if the Kuwaiti people don’t like their rulers, let them take action. Kuwait was not taken over by Israel , so why have we entered a war and fought for its well being? If a son got upset with his father and left home shall the father kill him or commit suicide? We are committing suicide because of Kuwait . If we left Kuwait there would be no need for war and Iraq would not be attacked and the sons of Iraq will not die. Is this true or a lie?”

B: The first paragraph of three: "My brother Abu, the father of Khalid (This term implies a fool): A few years ago you were on the battlefield of Iran, today you are on the battlefield of Kuwait. If you stay alive, you might soon be on the battlefield of Turkey. Your families in Baghdad and Basra have missiles dropping on them like the rain, and hunger that will surely kill them. Why is that? So Kuwait could remain part of Iraq? My brother the father of Khalid, you don’t have a radio, you do not hear the news. A few days ago Saddam put his family and children and money on an airplane and flew them to Mauritania. They live in harmony and peace while our children are hungry and die. Is this acceptable? If we all live and die equally, then Saddam’s children are better or nobler than your children. Why did he go to war and then send his family away while we are left to die? Why should we do on behalf of Kuwait? We bury ourselves in the desert instead of living with our families and our children. And why do we do this for Kuwait?

This is an extremely long leaflet and not one that the average Iraqi was likely to read. It is not unlike the Cold War Russian leaflets that rambled on and on. There is no data on production or dissemination and it is doubtful that this leaflet was ever used.

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