Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield
and Desert Storm
(Continued)

B52Original.jpg (15305 bytes)

The Original Vietnam War B-52 Photograph

  
There are a number of leaflets showing the B-52F bomber numbered "70162" dropping 750 pound bombs. The original photo was taken during the Viet Nam war. The front-line Iraqi divisions identified as targets of the B-52 leaflet are the 7th, 16th, 20th, 21st, 28th and 48th Infantry divisions. In general, two leaflets were dropped on each division, one before and one after a bombing raid. Three B-52 bombers were dedicated to this operation. They were assigned the mission of bombing after each leaflet drop.

B52Crew1960.jpg (183967 bytes)

Major Sander’s Bomber Crew - 1960
Sanders standing in second row, far right.

In June, 2013, Terry W. Sanders told me that the B-52F on the leaflet was his father’s aircraft in 1965 when he was in Guam flying Arc Light missions over Vietnam and providing close air support for the 1st Cavalry Division in the Ia Drang Valley as a member of the 9th Bomb Squadron, 7th Bomb Wing, originally stationed at Carswell Air Force Base, Ft. Worth, Texas. The Leaflet B-52 photograph was taken at this time.

MajorJamesSanders1959B52.jpg (154140 bytes)

Major James C. Sanders - 1959

His father, Major James C. Sanders was the radar navigator, responsible for dropping of the bombs. The Squadron returned to Carswell in December 1965 in time for the holidays. The 9th Bomb Squadron was inactivated on 25 June 1968. Carswell AFB was recommended for closure in 1991. The base was officially closed 30 Sept 1993. Lieutenant Colonel Sanders retired from the Air Force in November, 1966.

General Schwarzkopf had served in Vietnam and remembered the effect of the “Rolling Thunder" B-52 raids on the enemy. He wanted those B-52s over the Iraqis, and he wanted to use PSYOP to frighten them and cause them to abandon their posts. Schwarzkopf came up with the idea of announcing to a designated Iraqi that they would be bombed on the following day. At first the Air Force was hesitant, but daily attacks on Iraqi radar and anti-aircraft sites and American electronic jamming aircraft had made the high-flying bombers reasonably safe from attack. Schwarzkopf wanted to announce a bombing attack on one day and hit the Iraqis the next. He figured they would have 24 hours of anticipation and worry. He would then drop a second leaflet that said something like "We told you we would bomb you and we did. We are going to bomb you again" As the leaflets were dropped, the Coalition's Voice of the Gulf radio station broadcast the same message. The Iraqi front-line divisions stayed glued to their radio hoping that their unit would not be designated as the next target.

Colonel Jeff Jones, commanding officer of the Army's 8th Psychological Task Force at Fort Bragg, N.C., who directed U.S. PSYOP in the Gulf, says about the bomb-warning broadcasts:

We would tell them that tomorrow morning we were going to drop on them the biggest bomb we had. Then, exactly as promised we dropped a “Daisy Cutter” (BLU-82) that looks like a small atom bomb detonating. The next time we said we were going to drop another big one like that, the defections increased dramatically.

Dr. Kevin Wright mentions the B-52s of Desert storm in an article entitled “Fairford’s B-52 Desert Storm Ops,” Aviation News, July 2016. Some of his comments are:

General Norman Schwarzkopf, head of US Central Command insisted that Iraqi Republican Guard forces should be hit extremely hard to degrade their fighting ability prior to the start of the ground assault - and he believed USAF B-52s could be employed to considerable effect to achieve this within the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations (KTO).

The Saudi Government was particularly sensitive to the likely media images of the massive bomber based so close to Mecca. A compromise involved B-52Gs operating from the Saudi base, but only after the air campaign had begun. Only the Jeddah-based B-52Gs of the 1708th Bomb Wing (Provisional) could strike targets anywhere in Iraq without air refueling and during the air war these machines dropped half of the 72,289 munitions released by all B-52s, demonstrating the importance of close proximity operations…Diego Garcia, in the Indian Ocean, had been a B-52G base from the very first days of US mobilization in August 1990, but the distances involved placed it at the limit of practicality. Moron AB in Spain also was nominated early on and 24 B-52s, three KC-135s and 2,800 personnel would soon deploy to the base as the 801st Bomb Wing.

RAF Fairford in the UK was was an obvious choice for the B-52G as not only did it possess suitable airfield infrastructure to manage the heavyweight bomber but it was also close to the RAF Welford weapons store…The 806th Bomb Wing (Provisional) was activated on 5 February 1991 to manage Fairford B-52G ops…The 806th BW became operational on 8 February with the first mission launched against strategic Iraqi installations the following day. The 806th BW B-52 crews at Fairford faced targets that were around 2,750 miles and seven or eight hours flying time away from their base. Fairford-based aircraft dropped 3,008 bombs alone.

Missions mounted against Northern Iraq were managed by Joint Task Force (JTF) Proven Force and built around the 7440 Composite Wing (Provisional) at Incirlik AB in Turkey. JTF Proven Force mounted around 1,620 sorties, 98 of them by B-52Gs from Moron and Fairford. Its main area of operations was north of the 35th parallel.

The US Army's 4th Psychological Operations Group sought USAF support for a leafleting campaign to warn specific Iraqi frontline units that they were going to be bombed…As a result, it was not unusual for whole units to desert, and 98% of Iraqi POWs later said they had seen, or possessed, some of the total 29 million leaflets dropped on them When the war was over, many POWs suggested that the B-52s had the greatest impact on their morale. One prisoner claimed the Coalition bombing had been "the worst thing he had ever experienced in combat" and went on to assert that the B-52s were most devastating of all. Another Iraqi officer said he surrendered because of B-52 strikes. Told that his unit was never hit by B-52s, he is quoted as stating "but I saw one that had been attacked.”

There is some debate about the use of this type of leaflet. It certainly worked in Vietnam. Truong Nhu Tang says in Viet Cong Memoir: An Inside Account of the Vietnam War and Its Aftermath, Vantage Books, New York, 1986, that the B-52 strikes were “undiluted psychological terror…nothing the guerrillas had to endure compared with the stark terrorization of the B-52 bombardments.”

The leaflets were not used in Afghanistan and Iraq after the 9/11/2001 attacks because military officials believed they sent the wrong message; one of indiscriminate bombing and lack of care about civilian losses. One author said:

The B-52 was equally feared by Iraqi soldiers during the Gulf War. Consequently, one of the most successful PSYOP leaflets of the war displayed a photo of a B-52 unloading its deadly cargo, accompanied by text warning of continued B-52 strikes. Regrettably, many observers concluded that the “B-52 leaflet” was a universally applicable leaflet in PSYOP, forgetting that, although the Vietcong were terrified by B-52 strikes, they rarely surrendered as a result.

USAF Major Jon Huss mentions the psychological damage of the B-52 bombing:

The decision to continue the B-52 attacks at night was made for psychological reasons. The intent was to keep the target units awake and add fatigue to their cumulative list of stressors. To this end, the B-52 proved a very effective weapon. One senior Iraqi officer complained that he could hardly sleep more than two hours at a time and that the constant pounding shattered his men’s nerves to a point that they nearly went mad.

Surprisingly, this effect was due more to the experience of living through an attack, not the probability of being killed during one. That same Iraqi officer admitted that the B-52 raids actually produced relatively light casualties in his unit. The strikes could be felt and heard by units as far away as 40 kilometers. The B-52 was so universally feared that in one instance a troop commander identified it as the sole reason he surrendered his troops to advancing coalition forces. Reminded by an interrogator that his position was never attacked by B-52s, he stated, “That is true, but I had seen one that had been attacked.”

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C39

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"Desert Storm is coming to your area...flee immediately!"

B: In red: "Saddam's army intends using your city as a protective barrier to hide behind. Saddam doesn't care about you or your family. The joint forces do not wish to hurt innocent civilians, so take your belongings and head north to a safe place."

This is the only bomb warning leaflet not addressed to a military unit. It was coded "MSR" which implies it was meant to flood Iraqi main supply routes with refugees. 180,000 of the leaflets were disseminated during four missions, on three consecutive days, from 16 to 18 February.

V39F.jpg (16946 bytes)

V39B.jpg (14893 bytes)

V39

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"Desert Storm is coming to your area...flee immediately!"

B: B&W: "Saddam's army intends using your city as a protective barrier to hide behind. Saddam doesn't care about you or your family. The joint forces do not wish to hurt innocent civilians, so take your belongings and head north to a safe place."

A black and white version believed to have been printed at sea by USN carriers.

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C40

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"This is your first and last warning! The 7th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow! Flee this location now!"

B: In blue: "The 7th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow. The bombing will be heavy. If you want to save yourself, leave your location and do not allow anyone to stop you. Save yourself and head toward the Saudi border, where you will be welcomed as a brother."

The 7th ID was on the Kuwait-Saudi border. It was destroyed on 24 Feb by the 1st "Tiger" Brigade of the 2nd Armored Division, attached to the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force. 620,000 leaflets were printed and some portion of that number was dropped on 14 February.

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C41

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"The 7th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow. Leave this location now and save yourselves."

B: In green: "We have already informed you of our promise to bomb the 7th Infantry Division. We kept our promise and bombed them yesterday. BEWARE. We will repeat this bombing tomorrow. Now the choice is yours. Either stay and face death, or accept the invitation of the Joint Forces to protect your lives."

620,000 leaflets were printed, 60,000 were dropped on the 7th Infantry Division on 16 February.

C42F.jpg (15417 bytes)

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C42

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"This is your first and last warning! The 16th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow! Flee this location now!"

B: "In red: "The 16th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow. The bombing will be heavy. If you want to save yourself, leave your location and do not allow anyone to stop you. Save yourself and head toward the Saudi border, where you will be welcomed as a brother."

The 16th ID was on the Kuwait-Saudi border. It was smashed by Task Force Muthana of the Joint Arab Command. 500,000 leaflets were printed and at least 480,000 were dropped.

C43.jpg (22117 bytes)

C43b.jpg (13613 bytes)

C43

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"The 16th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow. Leave this location now and save yourselves."

B: In red: "We have already informed you of our promise to bomb the 16th Infantry Division. We kept our promise and bombed them yesterday. BEWARE. We will repeat this bombing tomorrow. Now the choice is yours. Either stay and face death, or accept the invitation of the Joint Forces to protect
your lives."

This is the only leaflet to show the designation in Arabic numbers (16). 500,000 leaflets were printed, at least 480,000 dropped on the 16th Infantry Division.

Note: Colonel Noll’s evaluation states that leaflets depicting the B-52 were generally influential to the Iraqi troops. However, this particular leaflet was a failure because the Iraqis did not believe that the 16th infantry Division was in Kuwait. Post-testing of the leaflet among Iraqi prisoners disclosed that they felt the leaflet was not credible. In addition, the color red was a warning to Iraqis and many therefore refused to pick up such a leaflet. Later the Coalition removed the red border from its leaflets.

C44F.jpg (16533 bytes)

C44B.jpg (31929 bytes)

C44

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"This is your first and last warning! The 20th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow! Flee this location now!"

B: "In red: "The 20th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow. The bombing will be heavy. If you want to save yourself, leave your location and do not allow anyone to stop you. Save yourself and head toward the Saudi border, where you will be welcomed as a brother."

The 20th ID was part of the Iraqi III Corps in southeastern Kuwait. It was destroyed by Saudi armored forces. 500,000 leaflets were ordered, there is no record of the number disseminated.

C45F.jpg (28575 bytes)

C45B.jpg (31628 bytes)

C45

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"Yesterday we demonstrated the power of the multinational forces. Once again, we offer you survivors a chance to live."

B: "In red: Two days ago we told you we would bomb the 20th Infantry Division.
Yesterday we did. Tomorrow, the 20th Infantry Division will be bombed again.
Your choice is to stay and die or accept the joint forces invitation to live."

980,000 leaflets were ordered. Various Coalition documents indicate that 1,080,000 were dropped, so it is obvious that someone is wrong. We have no way of telling how accurate any of the numbers are. We just print them as we find them in various declassified documents.

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C46

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"This is your first and last warning! The 21st Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow! Flee this location now!"

B: "In red: "The 20th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow. The bombing will be heavy. If you want to save yourself, leave your location and do not allow anyone to stop you. Save yourself and head toward the Saudi border. If you choose to stay, you choose death."

The 21st ID was part of the Iraqi IV Corps in southwestern Kuwait. It was destroyed by Tiger Brigade of the 2nd Armored Division. This is the only B-52 leaflet aimed at two divisions. Of course, this is an error. As a result, this leaflet was never dropped. There was also an "after" leaflet to the 21st I.D. which was not dropped. 500,000 copies of each leaflet were prepared, then burnt when the error was discovered.  

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C48

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"This is your first and last warning! The 28th Infantry Division will be bombed
tomorrow! Flee this location now!"

B: "In blue: "The 28th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow. The bombing will be heavy. If you want to save yourself, leave your location and do not allow anyone to stop you. Save yourself and head toward the Saudi border, where you will be welcomed as a brother."

The 28th ID was part of the Iraqi VII Corps in the neutral zone between Iraqi and Saudi Arabia. By coincidence, it was smashed by units of the U.S. VII Corps. 620,000 leaflets were requested. 120,000 leaflets were dropped on 18 February.

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C49

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W. "The 28th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow. Leave this location now and save yourselves."

B: In green: "We have already informed you of our promise to bomb the 28th Infantry Division. We kept our promise and bombed them yesterday. BEWARE. We will repeat this bombing tomorrow. Now the choice is yours. Either stay and face death, or accept the invitation of the Joint Forces to protect your lives."

620,000 leaflets were requested. 60,000 leaflets were dropped on the remainder of the 28th Infantry Division on 18 February.

C50.jpg (23741 bytes)

C50b.jpg (16243 bytes)

C50

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"This is your first and last warning! The 48th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow! Flee this location now!"

B: "In blue: "The 48th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow. The bombing will be heavy. If you want to save yourself, leave your location and do not allow anyone to stop you. Save yourself and head toward the Saudi border, where you will be welcomed as a brother."

The 48th ID was in the neutral zone between Iraqi and Saudi Arabia. It was destroyed by the U. S. 1st Armored Division. 620,000 leaflets were ordered. 500,000 leaflets were dropped on 22 February.

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C51

F: B-52 bomber drops bombs. B&W.
"The 48th Infantry Division will be bombed tomorrow. Leave this location now and save yourselves."

B: In green: "We have already informed you of our promise to bomb the 48th
Infantry Division. We kept our promise and bombed them yesterday. BEWARE. We will repeat this bombing tomorrow. Now the choice is yours. Either stay and face death, or accept the invitation of the Joint Forces to protect your lives."

620,000 leaflets were requested, 60,000 were dropped on the remainder of the 48th Infantry Division on 24 February.

Miles Hoffman of Columbus, Georgia, an American civilian financial analyst and investor for the Kuwaiti Government Social Security system, was shot in the arm and taken hostage by two teenage Iraqi soldiers on 5 September 1990 while attempting to evade capture. He was allowed to call his mother, Ann Hoffman, in early November. Saddam Hussein apparently believed allowing the “human shields” to call home would make him appear to be a more civilized dictator. However, Hoffman’s mother said that her son’s call was immediately disconnected when she asked about his wound.

Hoffman was freed on 9 November 1990 and transported with a planeload of Germans after ex-Chancellor Willy Brandt bargained for the humanitarian release. Hoffman was one of the first American hostages released and immediately admitted to the U.S. military hospital in Wiesbaden, Germany.

Hoffman feels that his reports to U.S. Intelligence on the Iraq political situation might have helped motivate them to prepare the B-52 leaflets. He was interviewed by a number of military officers in Wiesbaden and told them:

They needed to understand that Saddam Hussein ruled Iraq through fear. As such, what the Air Force should do is:

1. Send in the B-52’s with leaflets that said “tomorrow we’re going to bomb the shit out of you.”

2. Send in the B-52s and bomb the shit out of them.

3. Send in the B-52’s with leaflets that said “How’d you like that? There’s more to come.”

The point I was making is that it wasn’t the bombing that was crucial but rather the FEAR of the bombing. Saddam ruled by fear so they would understand fear.

I told Miles that the same technique was used in WWII and Vietnam and he seemed amused:

Herb, I now feel "kind of stupid" to think of it as "my plan," but I do so with a smile on my face. At least I was smart enough to think of it during my debriefing. Apparently General Norman Schwarzkopf and I were thinking very much alike.

The Autumn 2015 issue of Perspectives, The Journal of the Psychological Operations Association, in an article entitled “The Effectiveness of Bomb Warning Messaging” printed a message from Colonel Jack Summe to USAF PSYOP expert Chuck Doig about this operation:

The credibility of the overall PSYOP effort was improved by coordinating leaflet operations with B-52 bombing along front-line enemy positions. Leaflets were dropped telling the enemy force that bombing would begin against a specific unit on a specific day and encouraging them to desert or defect. This was followed by the bombing and another leaflet drop predicting the next strike. Post-tests showed that the campaign was highly credible among Iraqi soldiers and leaders and produced large numbers of desertions and defections. Iraqi General Officers that were interviewed after the conclusion of the war stated emphatically that the B-52 campaign was extremely effective and cemented the credibility of our PYSOP effort with Iraqi soldiers.

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C52

F: Bomb with pointed nose. Red with no border.
"Flee and live or stay and die."

B: "You have suffered horrendous losses as a result of us using the most powerful
conventional bomb in this war. It has more explosive power than 20 Scud
missiles. Beware! You will soon be bombed again. Kuwait will be free of
aggression. Join your brothers in the south. We will treat you with love and
respect. Leave this position. It will not protect you."

   blu82Bomb02.jpg (9008 bytes)

"Daisy Cutter" BLU-82

This leaflet depicts and was used with the BLU-82 bomb. This is a 15,000 lb. bomb, the size of a Volkswagen automobile sometimes called the “Daisy Cutter” because of its ability to clear a helicopter landing space in a heavily forested jungle. This leaflet, along with Blu-82 bombs, was dropped on four occasions between 6 February and 16 February 1991.

BLU82VNJungle.jpg (239261 bytes)

BLU-82 dropped in Vietnam to make a landing zone

In Vietnam the BLU-82 bomb was called “Command Vault.” The picture above might be the first BLU-82 dropped in Vietnam to make a landing zone. An article by the St. Petersburg Times of 28 December 1971 says in part:

Americans are blasting Indochina with a bomb that kills most living things within a square mile in order to create an instant helicopter landing pad.

The Final Report to Congress Conduct of the Persian Gulf War says in regard to the BLU-82:

The detonation of several 15,000-pound bombs, which were dropped from MC-130 special operations planes, also seemed to have a psychological effect on Iraqi troops. Senior Iraqi officer enemy prisoners of war frequently commented that their troops were also terrified of B-52s, and could clearly see and hear their strikes, even when miles away.

MC130DeployBlu82.jpg (28152 bytes)

Daisy Cutter being deployed from MC-130

It is dropped by being pulled out of the back of the C180 by a drogue parachute as it climbs. The giant bomb was not only a weapon; it was a powerful PSYOP tool. When General Schwarzkopf suggested using it on Iraqi minefields, Colonel George Gray, Commander of the 1st Special Operations Wing said, “Everybody within three miles of the drop will be bleeding from every orifice of his body.” General Calvin Waller is reported to have immediately said with a big smile, “Oh God, how many do we have?” 18 were shipped from Hill AFB in Utah. Eleven were eventually dropped on Iraqi positions. We know that at least one BLU-82 bomb was dropped on 7 February by Major Skip Davenport. That indicates that at least one leaflet drop took place on 8 February.

2,000,000 leaflets were printed. The Blu-82 “Daisy Cutter” leaflets were dropped by the 8th SOS on at least four occasions between 6 February and 16 February 1991. We don’t have the exact dates for all four missions, but we do know from numerous other documents that one million leaflets were ordered on 4 February and delivered on 5 February 1991. We know that 500,000 leaflets were dropped on 21 February 1991 along with a similar number of safe conduct passes, and it also seems that one million leaflets were still in the inventory by the end of the war. The problem here is that we don’t have all the data from all the Army and Air Force units. We just have enough data to get confused.

At the same time these bombs were dropped the Coalition radio warned the Iraqis, “Brave Iraqi soldiers. Tonight some of you are going to die. Your families will miss you. May Allah rest your souls.”

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BLU-82 Explosion at Night

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BLU-82 Desert Explosion

A British Special Air Service (SAS) Commando  team on a secret reconnaissance mission 110 miles away saw the signature mushroom cloud and radioed back to HQ, “Sir, the blokes have just nuked Kuwait.” An Iraqi battalion immediately crossed the lines along with its intelligence officer with maps of all the mine fields in their sector. 2,000,000 leaflets were printed. There is no data on dates of dissemination. At the same time these bombs were dropped the Coalition radio warned the Iraqis, "Brave Iraqi soldiers. Tonight some of you are going to die. Your families will miss you. May Allah rest your souls."

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V52

F: Bomb with pointed nose. Red with thick red border.
"Flee and live or stay and die."

B: "You have suffered horrendous losses..." Same as C52

1,000,000 leaflets were ordered. There is no data on dissemination.

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The "Bunker Buster" bombs were effective.

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C53

F: Three Iraqis surrender from smoking building. B&W.

B: The USA respects the Geneva Convention. If you quit fighting we assure the following; Humane treatment, food and water, medical care, and shelter. Return home after the war is over."

C53 through C55 all appear in two varieties with very minor differences. The easiest way to identify C53 is the rifle at the feet of a surrendering Iraqi soldier. 96,000 leaflets were first printed and later orders raised the total to 1,776,000. However, it appears that only about one million were actually disseminated. The internal name of this leaflet is “MOUT.” This means “Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain,” and was used either because the Iraqis are surrendering from a building, or because it was meant to be used in cities and villages. This leaflet was designed by 4th PSYOP Group artist Tim Wallace.

The Marines were issued 14 leaflet artillery rounds and 308,000 copies of this leaflet identified as “MOUT 55-01-1.”

A brief word about the surrender of Iraqi prisoners as told by Adel Al-Yousifi in Evidence II – a Study of the Damage to Kuwait from the Iraqi Invasion of 1990-1991. He says:

Of all those involved in the war, Iraq suffered the highest death rate. Official and unofficial statistics reveal 158,000 deaths. Other surveys estimate 200,000 deaths. 182,000 soldiers were taken prisoner or reported missing in action. 70,000 prisoners returned to Iraq when released. The rest refused to return, preferring to remain in Saudi Arabia. They were granted asylum there.

We should point out that prisoner-of-war defection is a common occurrence. After the Korean War, 21 Americans chose to remain with the Communists and 47,000 Chinese and North Korean POWs remained in the Free World. However, few people realize that as many as 112,000 Iraqis may have decided to flee their homeland under Saddam ’s rule.

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V53

F: Three Iraqis surrender from smoking building. B&W.

B: The USA respects the Geneva Convention. If you quit fighting we assure the following; Humane treatment, food and water, medical care, and shelter. Return home after the war is over."

In leaflet V53 there is no rifle at foot of the surrendering Iraqi soldier. No totals are known for this item and it is possible that the production figures are included in the data given for C53 above.

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C54

F: Iraqi throw down rifle magazine, shakes hand of U.S. soldier, B&W

B: "Follow these procedures to cease resistance. Pull your ammunition magazine from your weapon. Put your weapon on your left shoulder and aim the barrel at the ground. Raise your hands over your head and walk slowly. Wave with a white cloth or raise this leaflet to show you are willing to surrender. All Allied soldiers know this initiative shows that you are willing to surrender."

In leaflet C54 the barrel of the Iraqi soldier's weapon is white and all the tanks fly American flags. 270,000 leaflets were ordered. There is no data on dissemination. This leaflet was designed by 4th PSYOP Group artist Tim Wallace.

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V54

F: Iraqi throw down rifle magazine, shakes hand of U.S. soldier, B&W.

B: "Follow these procedures to cease resistance..." Same as C54

In leaflet V54 the barrel of Iraqi soldier’s rifle is black and all the tanks fly Saudi Arabian flags. Political correctness? There is no data on dissemination.

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C55

F: Iraqi soldier is surrounded by U.S. armor (only US flags depicted). B&W.
"Cease resistance. You are surrounded."

B: "Follow these procedures..." Same as C54.

Leaflet C55 depicts a lone Iraqi soldier surrounded by tank. On each barrel or tank flank there is an American flag. 135,000 leaflets were initially printed. There must have been additional printings because 275,000 leaflets are listed as being dropped. The code name for this leaflet is “Surrounded.” This leaflet was designed by 4th PSYOP Group artist Tim Wallace.

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V55

F: Iraqi soldier is surrounded by Coalition armor. B&W.
"Cease resistance. You are surrounded."

B: "Follow these procedures..." Same as C54.

This is an early version of this leaflet that depicts French, Kuwaiti and Saudi flags on the barrels or flanks of the tanks. 100,000 were printed and later destroyed by Coalition forces.

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C56

F: Giant cannon with Coalition flags aimed at Iraqi. B&W.

"The VII Corps of the Multi-national forces is heading in your direction. Your fellow soldiers along the front either surrendered or have been killed. Your turn will be next."

B: "Follow these procedures..." Text same as C54.

Two hundred 155mm leaflet artillery shells were taken to the Gulf. Nine were actually fired at the enemy. The leaflets inside these shells have been identified as C21, C56 and C58. I had a warrant officer friend in EOD who actually opened some of the shells and gave me the leaflets rolled inside. He told me:

The leaflets were downloaded from the shells at the King Khalid Military City (KKMC)Theater Storage Facility Area 4 in January 1992. There were between 100 and 200 engineering prototype 155mm projectiles stored in two areas from two different units. They were unmarked but bore a metal parts number that indicated they were experimental and were produced in November 1990. A small quantity of the projectiles, perhaps 12-20, had been prepared for fire, loaded with leaflets, expulsion charges installed, but not fused. The leaflets were in four round bundles, separated by pusher plates, spacers, and enclosed in two semi-circular steel sleeves. I saw some evidence on the projectiles that they had been hastily converted from VX binary chemical shells. They were on the pallet in a horizontal rather than the normal upright configuration.

200,000 of the leaflets were printed. The Air Force claims to have dropped 311,000 and the artillery had 100,000 at their disposal, so once again we obviously do not have complete data on printing. This leaflet was designed by 4th PSYOP Group artist Tim Wallace.

20 artillery shells and 100,000 of these leaflets identified as “Big Gun 7-2” were at logistics Base Alpha.

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C57

F: Stealth aircraft climbs away from exploding Iraqi soldier. B&W.

B: U.S. Marine Corps seal "United States Naval Infantry," and text.

"Follow these procedures to cease resistance. Pull your ammunition magazine from your weapon. Put your weapon on your left shoulder and aim the barrel at the ground. Raise your hands over your head and walk slowly. Wave with a white cloth or raise this leaflet to show you are willing to surrender. All Allied soldiers know this initiative shows that you are willing to surrender."

This leaflet was known as “Strategic Air – Marines” by the Coalition. Internal codes were “3F” and “14-08-01.” This Marine leaflet was dropped extensively and is known in numerous minor variations where the Marine emblem on the back is printed anywhere from the extreme left to the extreme right. The original request was for 360,000 leaflets on 24 January 1991. There was a second printing of 1,860,000, 1,320,000 were dropped during the war and another 900.000 were still in inventory at the end of the war.  There is a variation that Johnson calls V57. The back of the leaflet is printed in red. I have placed it in a section I call “CIA Leaflets.” This leaflet was designed by 4th PSYOP Group artist Tim Wallace. He was asked to show how with “stealth” The Iraqis would never see the aircraft coming.

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C58

F: Iraqi tankers surrender to U.S. armor. B&W.

B: "Follow these instructions if you want to survive. Raise your barrel to maximum elevation. Face your barrel to the rear. Leave all the tank hatches open. Put your hands over your head and approach slowly. Wave a white cloth as a signal that you want to survive and live in peace, or wave this leaflet. All armies of the Multi-national forces understand that this pass shows your honorable commitment to peace."

This leaflet was called “Tank Surrender” by the Coalition. Internal codes for it were “3G” and “13L-03-6.” The original request was for 600,000 leaflets on 25 January 1991. However, 100,000 were sent to Logistics Base Alpha for the artillery. 60,000 leaflets were sent for placement in M29 bombs on 21 February 1991 and another 60,000 on 24 February 1991. 430,000 leaflets were in the inventory at the end of the war so all the leaflets were obviously not disseminated. This leaflet was designed by 4th PSYOP Group artist Tim Wallace. He told me:

In the original rough draft I had the tank barrel down...an individual made me change it to the up position which I believe was incorrect.

100,000 leaflets identified as “Tank Surrender 13L-03-6” and 20 artillery shells were at Logistics Base Alpha.

Whenever I see this image of an Iraqi tanker surrendering holding a white flag I think of a comment in the book The Rape of Kuwait, Jean P. Sasson, Knightsbridge Publishing Company, New York, 1991. The author quotes a Kuwaiti freedom fighter named Nizar who pretended to be friendly with some Iraqi tank crew. Sasson says:

He wandered up to an Iraqi on a tank, and started a friendly conversation. The Iraqi felt at ease and asked Nizar if he could give him some information. The Iraqi leaned toward Nizar and whispered, “Tell me, who is this man called Bush?” Nizar filled him in on world events. Then the soldier said, “When is this Bush coming?” Nizar replied “Soon.” The soldier nodded and continued, “Look what I have” as he pointed under his seat. He had a white cloth, folded up and ready to surrender. The Iraqi soldier laughed and said, “When this Bush man comes, I will wave my arms in the air and then go to America.”

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C59

F: Iraqi jets with insignia of Iran. Color.
"Is the Iranian Air Force growing?"

B: "Saddam has given back the Shatt al Arab to Iran, and now he gives them your Air Force. There is something better you can do. Go to Saudi Arabia. Call us on your radio and announce that you wish to join your Arab brothers. Approach us alone in your aircraft, or in single file. Lower your landing wheels, turn on your landing lights, disarm your weapons, turn off your fire control systems and continue flying at a speed no greater than 250 to 300 nautical miles. You will receive humane treatment, and after the crisis is over, you will be permitted to return to your homeland and rebuild it."

This leaflet shows Iraqi fighter aircraft with their own national symbol crossed out and the insignia of Iran, their hated enemy, in its place. Once the Coalition had air superiority, Iraqi aircraft fled to Iran in an attempt to preserve their air force. This was worrisome for the Coalition because it was unknown what kind of arrangement Saddam had made with the Mullahs. It was possible that with the aid of the Ayatollahs, one day all of the impounded aircraft could take off in a concentrated counterattack against the Coalition forces. In fact, those aircraft never reappeared during the length of the war. I do not know if Iran ever returned them to Iraq after the war or kept them as booty. 1,000,000 leaflets were initially requested. There is no data on dissemination.

Note: Colonel Noll’s evaluation states that this was the worst leaflet prepared by the Coalition. The Iraqi troops did not recognize the Iranian flag and did not understand the meaning of the “X” over the insignia.

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MIG aircraft buried in the Iraqi desert

It should be noted that there is a possibility that not all the Iraqi aircraft were flown to Iran. Years later, during the American invasion of Iraq in 2003, dozens of aircraft were found buried in the Iraqi desert. It has been reported that Coalition forces discovered 30 to 40 aircraft at al Taqqadum in July 2003 including MiG-25 and Su-25 ground attack jets. They were buried more than 10 feet beneath the sand and covered with camouflage netting.

A 1996 Air Force report written by Richard G. Davis and entitled “Decisive Force: Strategic Bombing in the Gulf War” says about the Iraqi aircraft:

 

As early as 21 January 1991, Iraq had sent twenty-five large aircraft, including fourteen looted from Kuwait, to Iran, ostensibly its mortal enemy. Iraq’s neutral neighbor, Jordan, apparently refused to accept them…By 28 January 1991, nearly eighty aircraft rested on Iranian airfields. More than forty additional aircraft arrived by 10 February 1991. The 148 interned Iraqi aircraft included twenty four Mirage F-1 interceptors, twenty-four Sukhoi SU-24 Fencer strike aircraft, and forty Sukhoi Su-22 Fitter-H fighter bombers.

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C60

F: Three Iraqi soldiers listen to radio. B&W.
"Please turn your radio to medium wave 1134 KHZ daily."

B: Identical to front.

An Iraqi officer tunes to the Coalition radio station. 700,000 of these leaflets were printed. There is no data on dissemination.

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